Tribes and the American Civil War
|Five Civilized Tribes and the American Civil War
|Civil War and Five Civilized Tribes
For the Five Civilized Tribes the Civil War proved a disastrous experience. The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole, and Creek had only begun to repair the damage done
by intratribal factionalism before and during Indian Removal (1830-39) and to fashion a hospitable existence in Indian Territory, when the war came upon them and revived old disagreements. Indeed, it can be
argued that no group in the nation suffered more in the Civil War than the Indians of Oklahoma. An argument can also be applied to the fate of the North Carolina Cherokee.
In the two decades after removal
the Five Tribes formed active economies and adapted to life in Indian Territory. The Chickasaw and Choctaw practiced cotton plantation agriculture, while
the Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole engaged in subsistence farming, ranching, and cattle raising. Market connections with New Orleans gave the tribes a Southern orientation. Each had an established
government, distinct boundaries to their land, and a United States
government representative (an agency) by which the obligations of the removal treaties were met. While the pre Civil War era
was not a "golden age" for the tribes, the trauma of dislocation had healed and the region seemed destined to enjoy more prosperous
A key social institution among the Five Tribes, one that was also crucial
in the sectional division of the United States,
was the extent of slave holding. Of Indian Territory's approximately 100,000 population,
14 percent were African American slaves. That aspect of tribal culture, as much as any other, explains the willingness of
many Indians to side with the Confederate States of America.
The Cherokee Confederate general Stand Watie owned nearly one hundred slaves, making him, in the context of the times, an
immensely wealthy man.
Little of the debate over slavery's expansion affected the tribes in
Indian Territory. However, Indian slaveholders were apprehensive about the Republican victory
in 1860 and the party's ultimate designs for "the peculiar institution." Many Indian Territory residents were upset by Secretary
of State William H. Seward's remarks when he urged the U.S.
government to extinguish tribal land titles and open the West to settlement.
Another condition catastrophically affecting the tribes was continued
dissension between mixed-bloods and full bloods over the legacy of removal. Nowhere was this division more apparent than among
the Cherokee. Because the mixed-bloods had signed a removal Treaty at New Echota in 1835, they were despised by the full bloods, led by Chief John Ross. A leadership contest developed between the factions, pitting Stand Watie, for the mixed-bloods, against Ross. Until 1860, however, Ross and the full bloods had succeeded in holding political control
of the tribe, and a working, if not amicable, accommodation between the two parties had been achieved.
The Confederate government, formed by early February 1861, had plans
for the West. Jefferson Davis and his councilors saw the need to protect the Mississippi River, use the western Confederacy
as a "breadbasket," and eventually establish Indian Territory as a springboard for expansion.
Later in 1861, Davis appointed Albert Pike, a noted Arkansas
attorney who enjoyed a good reputation with the Five Tribes, as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Prior to Pike's arrival, other
commissioners had gone north to Indian Territory from Texas
to enlist the tribes in the southern cause. They found the Choctaw and Chickasaw enthusiastic for the Confederacy, and strong
sentiment for the new nation also appeared among the Creek and Seminole. In early 1861, Col. Douglas H Cooper recruited the
Choctaw and Chickasaw into mounted rifle units, which later fought in Arkansas and Missouri. Albert Pike also recruited military units, and after Stand
Watie received a colonel's commission in the Confederate army on July 12, 1861, he raised a band of three hundred for service.
The Cherokee, however, held back from formal alliance. John Ross doubted
the wisdom of secession and favored neutrality. Had the tribes listened to Ross, they would have weathered the war and enjoyed
good relations with the victor. But tribal divisions among the mixed-blood and full-blood factions, as well as the fact of
slaveholding, worked against a policy of neutrality.
Unfortunately for the Union and the Cherokee, the U.S. government did little to engender Indian support. Seeing
Confederate activity in both Arkansas and Texas, Lt. Col.
William H. Emory, commanding the Union troops in Indian Territory, abandoned Forts Washita, Arbuckle, and Cobb in May 1861
and retreated to Kansas. Consequently, Union sympathizers
in Indian Territory had no military protection for their allegiance, and they found themselves
surrounded by Confederate power. Later, in August 1861, Union forces suffered a defeat at Wilson's
Creek in Missouri. Early Confederate victories and the lack
of a Union presence made a Confederate alliance compelling.
Albert Pike thus made headway with the Indian Territory
tribes. He signed treaties with the Creek (July 10, 1861), the Choctaw and Chickasaw (July 12), the Seminole (August 1), and
the Wichita, Caddo, and others (August 12). John Ross stalled,
but the military power of the Confederacy rose while that of the Union waned. On October
7 the Confederacy consummated a treaty with the Cherokee and then with the Quapaw, Seneca, Shawnee, and Osage. The mixed-bloods rejoiced over the alliance and quickly signed into the
The Oklahoma Indians were in an impossible position, facing an uncertain
and perilous future. A small population, they therefore could neither enforce their will on their neighbors nor defend their
borders. Kansas to the north was Union, and Arkansas to
the east and Texas to the south were Confederate. Neutrality
would have required diplomatic finesse, and military power would have be necessary to have kept the residents of those states
from despoiling Indian Territory. Geography and scarce population would make the Indian nations
a marching ground for troops in transit elsewhere or make them a target for vengeance. The region itself possessed no particular
military advantages save one: both the Confederacy and the Union wanted to insure that the
tribes did not support the other.
In terms of tactics the determining factor in the West during the Civil
War was the Mississippi River. Union strategy, devised
by Gen. Winfield Scott and dubbed the "Anaconda Plan," sought to control the Mississippi River
and thus to divide the Confederacy. Most of the warfare in the West, therefore, was connected to furthering or thwarting Brig.
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's advance down the river. Military activity in Indian Territory was
marginal to that objective. Confederate Brig. Gen. Ben McCulloch, that army's second-ranking general officer, was ordered
from Texas to Arkansas and placed in command of Indian Territory. The Confederate Army of the West, which he was to build, was to be composed of three
Indian regiments plus one regiment each from Texas, Louisiana,
|Map of Five Civilized Tribes
|Map of Five Civilized Tribes
After the treaty making ended, Confederate military companies formed
rapidly among the tribes, but resentment toward the Confederacy also surfaced. The Creek leader (and slaveholder) Opothleyahola
rejected the Confederate alliance and led some seven thousand followers away from tribal lands. Secessionists perceived him
as an enemy, and they pursued, under the leadership of Col. Douglas H. Cooper. The Creeks defended themselves at Round
Mountain (November 19, 1861), Chusto Talasah (December 9), and Chustenalah
(December 26). In the last engagement, Opothleyahola's encampment was routed. The remainder of his followers eventually reached
Kansas as refugees.
Confederate leaders attempted to use Indian Territory troops to force
the federals out of Arkansas. Under Albert Pike, promoted
to brigadier general, the Indian regiments joined divisions led by Brig. Gens. Sterling Price and Ben McCulloch to drive out
Union troops serving under Brig. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis. However, at the Battle of Pea Ridge (March 7-8, 1862), Curtis proved
the superior strategist and defeated the Confederate command. Pike, upset by McCulloch's charges that the Indian troops had
performed in a disorderly manner and had scalped Union soldiers, took his regiments back to Indian Territory.
He resigned his commission in May 1862 because, in his view, the Confederates were failing to uphold their treaty promises.
Also in that month the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederacy was created, specifically including Indian
At about the same time, Union commanders in the West then decided to
seize Indian Territory. Under Col. William Weer the Union Indian Expedition moved out of
Kansas in June 1862. On July 3, they attacked units under
Cols. Stand Watie and John Drew at Locust Grove and, by superior use of artillery, defeated the Confederates. Weer then moved
down and momentarily took Fort Gibson.
However, his subordinates rejected his propositions about further advances and demanded to return to Kansas, eventually deposing Weer of his command. This failed expedition threw the Cherokee
into turmoil. John Ross used the occasion to negate the Confederate treaty and to embrace the Union cause. He and his family
left the Cherokee Nation and resided in Philadelphia and Washington,
D.C. for the remainder of the war.
In October 1862, Union Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt invaded Indian Territory
from Arkansas and on October 22 defeated Col. Douglas H. Cooper at Fort Wayne. Blunt made several sorties thereafter and placed Col. William A. Phillips in
charge of organizing Cherokee Unionists. In February 1863 Phillips convened the Cowskin Prairie Council, which elected Thomas
Pegg as acting Cherokee principal chief and repudiated the Confederate treaty. The Cherokee thereby officially divided their
allegiance. One side, led by Pegg, claimed loyalty to the Union, while the other affirmed
the Confederate alliance and recognized Stand Watie as chief.
Blunt was determined to rid Indian Territory
of the Confederates. Stationing himself at Fort Gibson
(renamed Fort Blunt),
he engaged the Southern forces under Douglas H. Cooper (now brigadier general) at Honey Springs on July 17, 1863. In this,
the most important military engagement in Indian Territory during the Civil War, the Union
army was victorious, due to superior artillery and inferior Confederate gunpowder.
After Honey Springs the Civil War in Indian Territory
assumed a different form and was, in truth, a minor affair. The fate of the region became similar to that of border areas
like Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Rule of law was lost, and roaming bands of irregular partisans plundered and
murdered hapless civilians. William Clarke Quantrill and his company of irregulars, or guerrilla band, (Quantrill's Raiders) often roamed the area. Stand Watie was active in these years, but he was no guerrilla. Promoted to brigadier general
in May 1864, he undertook military missions of strategic value that sought to disrupt the supply lines of Union troops either
stationed in Indian Territory or moving south. His most famous exploits were the capture
of the steamer J. R. Williams on June 15, 1864, and his seizure of a Union supply train at Cabin Creek on September 19, 1864.
Thereafter in the territory, partisan activity on both sides led to
retaliatory raids and many cruelties. When either a Confederate or Union force left an area,
the civilian population was open to invasion by opposing forces. Fear of retribution led to a massive refugee problem. Some
two thousand displaced Cherokee suffered at Fort Scott, Kansas.
When Union victory at Honey Springs led to permanent Federal occupation of Forts Gibson and Smith, those who were exiled in
Kansas were ordered home. By 1863, perhaps as many as seven
thousand refugees surrounded Fort Gibson.
At the end of the war, in camps around Red River, Confederate civilians numbering nearly
fifteen thousand gathered and suffered. It has been estimated that among the Cherokee by 1863 one-third of the married women
had become widows, and one-fourth of the children were orphans.
Added to the misery of refugee camps was the systematic plundering of
the tribes' wealth. A system arose to supply federal troops and refugees with meat and other foodstuffs. Looters pillaged
the herds of Indian Territory, then sold the livestock to contractors, who then marketed
the animals to the army at inflated prices. By war's end some 300,000 head of cattle had been stolen from Indian
Territory, a devastating economic blow. Moreover, the tribes recognized that political forces were operating against
them. Kansas Senators Jim Lane and Samuel Pomeroy sought to transfer Kansas Indians into Indian Territory
and abrogate treaties made with the Five Tribes. Iowa Sen. James Harlan proposed a bill to end tribal sovereignty and establish
a territorial government for a state of Oklahoma, thereby
destroying Indian land titles.
Gen. Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox
on April 9, 1865, sealed the Confederacy's fate, but it was some time before western generals accepted its demise. On May
26, 1865, Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith surrendered the Confederacy's Trans-Mississippi Department, of which Indian
Territory was a part. One of the last Confederate generals to capitulate was Stand Watie, who did so on June 23,
1865. From the Oklahoma region some 3,530 men had enlisted
in the Union Army, and 3,260 in the Confederate Army. Approximately ten thousand people had died due to the war. The loss
of livestock and the end of slavery dealt a considerable blow to the tribes' economic systems.
Pres. Abraham Lincoln may have offered "charity for all" in his second
inaugural address, but the federal government showed little of that disposition when dealing with the Indians. U.S. officials tried to force a harsh peace on the tribes
at the Fort Smith Council in September 1865, but it was rejected by the tribal leaders. Treaties were finally signed in Washington, D.C., in 1866. The Five
Tribes lost the western half of Indian Territory to Kansas
tribes, slavery was ended, freedmen obtained citizenship and property rights, and the tribes had to permit railroad construction
in the area. Indian Territory was now unofficially called Oklahoma,
and while the government did not impose a territorial organization upon the land, the tribes agreed to work toward having
a governor and an intertribal council. The prewar status as separate, independent nations was expected to end.
The tribes unsuccessfully attempted to reclaim the advances made between
1840 and 1860. Although wartime animosities flared between the old Confederate and Union
factions, new governmental entities were formed as a spate of constitution making occurred between 1867 and 1872. Railroads
penetrated Oklahoma in the 1870s, but in some ways their
arrival was a curse rather than a blessing, for they brought whites seeking land.
Farming and ranching returned with some vigor to the area, but the spread
of tenant farming was an ominous sign of the loss of independence among farmers. The territory acquired a reputation for lawlessness
in the postwar years. The destruction of legal authority and infighting among the tribes made it difficult to police the region.
In the absence of law enforcement, the so-called terrorists who had operated with impunity during the war returned to
continue their rampaging ways: the James Gang, the Younger Gang, and the Dalton Brothers.
It is difficult to gauge the effect of the Civil War upon Indian Territory. Tribal sovereignty was under attack, other states wanted to remove their Indians there,
and white settlers coveted the land. But none of these situations were created by the war. Regardless of the conflict, these
forces would have been in motion toward the end of the nineteenth century. However, the Civil War did weaken the tribes. It
exacerbated long-standing internal divisions and made new ones, and it destroyed needed population and crushed economic advance.
Without the war perhaps the tribes might have grown in numbers, in wealth, and in political power. They might then have been
better able to ward off later Euroamerican attacks on their land. The only rational assessment that can be made without fear
of contravention is that the Civil War crippled the tribes of Indian Territory and took away
(References listed at bottom of page.)
Recommended Reading: The Blue, the Gray, and the Red: Indian Campaigns of the Civil War
(Hardcover: 288 pages). Description: Inexperienced Union and Confederate soldiers in the West waged numerous bloody campaigns against the
Indians during the Civil War. Fighting with a distinct geographical advantage, many tribes terrorized the territory from the
Plains to the Pacific, as American pioneers moved west in greater numbers. These noteworthy--and notorious--Indian campaigns
featured a fascinating cast of colorful characters, and were set against the wild, desolate, and untamed territories of the
western United States. This is the first
book to explore Indian conflicts that took place during the Civil War and documents both Union
and Confederate encounters with hostile Indians blocking western expansion. Continued below...
Publishers Weekly: Beginning with the flight of the Creeks into Union territory pursued by Confederate forces
(including many of Stand Watie's Cherokees), this popular history recounts grim, bloody, lesser-known events of the Civil
War. Hatch (Clashes of the Cavalry) also describes the most incredible incidents....
Kit Carson, who fought Apaches and Navajos under the iron-fisted Colonel Carleton, arranged the Long Walk of the Navajos that
made him infamous in Navajo history to this day. The North's "Captain" Woolsey, a volunteer soldier, became a brutal raider
of the Apaches. General Sibley, a northerner and first Governor of Minnesota, oversaw the response to the Sioux Uprising
of 1862 that left several hundred dead. The slaughter of Black Kettle's Cheyennes at Sand
Creek in 1864 by Colorado volunteers under Colonel
Chivington, a militant abolitionist whose views on Indians were a great deal less charitable, “forms a devastating chapter.”
Hatch, a veteran of several books on the Indian Wars that focus on George Armstrong Custer, has added to this clear and even-handed
account a scholarly apparatus that adds considerably to its value.
Recommended Viewing: Indian Warriors - The Untold Story of the Civil War (History Channel) (2007). Description: Though largely forgotten, 20 to 30 thousand Native Americans
fought in the Civil War. Ely Parker was a Seneca leader who found himself in the thick of battle under the command of General
Ulysses S. Grant. Stand Waite--a Confederate general and a Cherokee--was known for his brilliant guerrilla tactics. Continued...
Also highlighted is Henry Berry Lowery, an Eastern North Carolina Indian, who became known as the Robin
Hood of North Carolina. Respected Civil War authors, Thom Hatch and Lawrence Hauptman, help reconstruct these most captivating
stories, along with descendants like Cherokee Nation member Jay Hanna, whose great-grandfathers fought for both the Union and the Confederacy.
Together, they reveal a new, fresh perspective and the very personal reasons that drew these Native Americans into the fray.
War in the Indian Territory, by Steve Cottrell (Author), Andy Thomas (Illustrator). Review: From its beginning with the bloody Battle of Wilson's Creek on August 10, 1861, to its end in surrender
on June 23, 1865, the Civil War in the Indian Territory proved
to be a test of valor and endurance for both sides. Author Steve Cottrell outlines the events that led up to the involvement
of the Indian Territory in the war, the role of the Native
Americans who took part in the war, and the effect this participation had on the war and this region in particular. Continued below...
As in the rest of
the country, neighbor was pitted against neighbor, with members of the same tribes often fighting against each other. Cottrell
describes in detail the guerrilla warfare, the surprise attacks, the all-out battles that spilled blood on the now peaceful
state of Oklahoma. In addition, he introduces the reader to the interesting and often colorful
leaders of the military North and South, including the only American Indian to attain a general's rank in the war, Gen. Stand
Watie (member of the Cherokee Nation). With outstanding illustrations by Andy Thomas, this story is a tribute to those who
fought and a revealing portrait of the important role they played in this era of our country's history. Meet The Author:
A resident of Carthage,
Steve Cottrell is a descendant of a Sixth Kansas Cavalry member who served in the Indian
Territory during the Civil War. A
graduate of Missouri Southern State College in Joplin, Cottrell has participated in several battle reenactments including the Academy
Award winning motion picture, "Glory". Active in Civil War battlefield preservation and historical monument projects and contributor
of a number of Civil War relics to regional museums, Cottrell recently co-authored Civil War in the Ozarks, also by Pelican.
It is now in its second printing.
Recommended Viewing: Civil
War Terror (History Channel) Description: This is the largely untold story
of a war waged by secret agents and spies on both sides of the Mason Dixon Line. These are tales of hidden conspiracies of
terror that specifically targeted the civilian populations. Engineers of chemical weapons, new-fangled explosives and biological
warfare competed to topple their enemy. With insight from Civil War authorities, we debunk the long-held image of a romantic
and gentlemanly war. Continued below...
To revisit the past, we incorporate written sources, archival photographs
and newspaper headlines. Our reenactments bring to life key moments in our historical characters' lives and in each of the
horrific terrorist plots.
Recommended Reading: The
Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole (Civilization of the American Indian) (455 pages:
University of Oklahoma Press). Description: Fascinating and captivating study
of the often referred to Five Civilized Tribes, with each tribe's: evolution, struggles, Indian removal, treaties, internal
and external strife, and outlook...numerous maps and photographs compliment this research. Continued below...
By focusing on all 'Five Tribes' it also presents a better understanding
of how the tribes interrelated in the Indian Territory (most of present-day Oklahoma). While most authors only focus on "a tribe"
rather than "the tribes," Foreman, by interconnecting the tribes, conveys a more comprehensive understanding of the Five Nations.
Recommended Reading: Race and Radicalism in the Union Army (Hardcover). Review: "This incredible
work broadens understanding of the Civil War in the West and expands historical knowledge about the Native American contributions
to the war effort. It will appeal to any Civil War historian and those interested in Native American or military history."
Eugene H. Berwanger, author of The Frontier against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy.
Description: In this compelling portrait of interracial activism, Mark A. Lause documents
the efforts of radical followers of John Brown to construct a triracial portion of the Federal Army of the Frontier. Mobilized
and inspired by the idea of a Union that would benefit all, black, Indian, and white soldiers fought side by side, achieving
remarkable successes in the field. Against a backdrop of idealism, racism, greed, and the agonies and deprivations of combat,
Lause examines links between radicalism and reform, on the one hand, and racialized interactions among blacks, Indians, and
whites, on the other. Lause examines how this multiracial vision of American society developed on the Western frontier.
Focusing on the men and women who supported Brown in territorial Kansas, Lause examines the impact of abolitionist sentiment
on relations with Indians and the crucial role of nonwhites in the conflict. Through this experience, Indians, blacks, and
whites began to see their destinies as interdependent, and Lause discusses the radicalizing impact of this triracial Unionism
upon the military course of the war in the upper Trans-Mississippi. The aftermath of the Civil War destroyed much of the memory
of the war in the West, particularly in the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). The opportunity for an interracial society was
quashed by the government's willingness to redefine the lucrative field of Indian exploitation for military and civilian officials
and contractors. Assessing the social interrelations,
ramifications, and military impact of nonwhites in the Union forces, Race and Radicalism in the Union Army explores
the extent of interracial thought and activity among Americans in this period and greatly expands the historical narrative
on the Civil War in the West.
Recommended Reading: Indian
Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Annie Heloise Abel, The American Indian as Slaveholder
and Secessionist: An Omitted Chapter in the Diplomatic History of the Southern Confederacy (Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H.
Clark, 1915). Annie Heloise Abel, The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War (Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark,
1919). Annie Heloise Abel, The American Indian Under Reconstruction (Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark, 1925). Wiley
Britton, Civil War on the Border, 2 vols. (3rd ed., rev.: Ottowa: Kansas Heritage Press, 1994). Richard S. Brownlee,
Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy: Guerrilla Warfare in the West, 1861-1865 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press,
1958). Mark L. Cantrell and Mac Harris, ed., Kepis and Turkey Calls: An Anthology of the War Between the States in Indian Territory (Oklahoma City: Western Heritage Books, 1982). Whit Edwards, "The Prairie was
on Fire": Eyewitness Accounts of the Civil War in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma
City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 2001). LeRoy H. Fischer, ed., The Civil War Era in Indian Territory (Los Angeles: Lorrin L. Morrison, 1974). Lary C. Rampp and Donald L. Rampp, The
Civil War in the Indian Territory (Austin, Tex.: Presidial Press, 1975). Muriel H. Wright
and LeRoy H. Fischer, "Civil War Sites in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 44 (Summer 1966). James L. Huston, © Oklahoma Historical Society.
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