North Carolina Civil War Regiments and Battles

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North Carolina American Civil War Regiments and Battles

"When one totals the North Carolinians that died in World War I, World War II, Korea
and Vietnam, it is far less than North Carolina's American Civil War death toll."

North Carolina Civil War Regiments and Battles
North Carolina Civil War Infantry Regiment.gif
North Carolina Civil War Infantry: Battlefield and Battle Map

North Carolina provided at least 125,000 soldiers to the Confederacy, and the Tar Heel State recruited more soldiers than any Southern state. More than 620,000 died in the Civil War and 40,000 were North Carolinians. The Old North State provided 69 infantry regiments and 4 infantry battalions; 9 cavalry regiments and 9 cavalry battalions; 2 heavy artillery battalions, 4 artillery regiments, 3 light artillery battalions, and 4 light artillery batteries. Several North Carolina infantry regiments mustered 1,500 soldiers, while few regiments mustered as many as 1,800. North Carolina's sole legion, Thomas' Legion, mustered more than 2,500 soldiers, while the average Civil War regiment fielded 1,100 soldiers. The North Carolina mountain counties also recruited several companies which served in the predominately “Piedmont” and “Coastal Plain” regiments. Western North Carolina, furthermore, recruited numerous “Home Guard, Junior and Senior Reserves, and State Militia companies.” Western North Carolinians also served in East Tennessee, northern Georgia, southwest Virginia, and "Upstate" South Carolina regiments. Western North Carolina in 1861, depending on which cartographic map you study, included 20 or 21 western counties (see North Carolina Maps). In 1861, however, there were 21 mountain counties and 71% of North Carolina's slave population resided in the Coastal Plain Region, with the Southern Appalachian Mountains considered the poorest of the three North Carolina Regions. The Mountaineers, a.k.a. Highlanders, fought and died in the bloodiest battles of the War, and, in the below list of regiments, Western North Carolina recruited at least one company for the listed regiment or the entire regiment hailed from the North Carolina mountains. A Guide to Military Organizations and Installations of North Carolina 1861-1865, explains the numerical designations according to branch of service and the nature and character of each unit's organization. The Western North Carolina American Civil War Regiments and Battalions offers more detailed contributions for each Western North Carolina regiment. North Carolina American Civil War Battles and Battlefields covers all the major battles and campaigns fought on North Carolina's soil. North Carolina and the American Civil War discusses the numerous contributions of the state in the conflict, and American Civil War Generals Appointed by North Carolina offers a biography for each of the state's generals.

CONFEDERATE:
 
 WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENTAL HISTORIES
(AKA Mountain Troops; Mountaineers; Highlanders)
 
* Denotes entire regiment recruited from the mountains
** Denotes at least 4 companies recruited from the mountains
*** Denotes between 1 and 3 companies recruited from the mountains

1st North Carolina Infantry Regiment (6 months, 1861)***

1st Infantry Regiment was also known as the Bethel Regiment. In May 1861 it organized for six month's service at Raleigh, North Carolina, and then relocated to Virginia. Its soldiers were from the counties of Edgecombe, Mecklenburg, Orange, Buncombe, Cumberland, Burke, Guilford, and Lincoln. With approximately 800 men, the unit fought at Big Bethel and then served in the Army of the Peninsula near Yorktown. Two companies from Bertie and Chowan Counties joined the regiment which increased its strength to more than 1,200. On November 12, 1861, the unit disbanded and returned to North Carolina. Many of the men transferred to the 11th North Carolina Regiment. The field officers were Colonels Daniel H. Hill and Charles C. Lee, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph B. Starr, and Majors Robert F. Hoke and James H. Lane. This volunteer regiment should not be confused with the 1st North Carolina Infantry Regiment (NCST), which formed near Warrenton, N.C.

1st North Carolina Cavalry Regiment**
(AKA 9th North Carolina Regiment Volunteers-1st Cavalry)

9th Regiment Volunteers-1st Cavalry, AKA 1st North Carolina Cavalry Regiment, was organized at Camp Beauregard, Ridgeway, North Carolina, in August 1861. Its companies were from the counties of Ashe, Wayne, Macon, Northampton, Mecklenburg, Watauga, Cabarrus, Buncombe, Duplin, and Warren. Ordered to Virginia, the regiment was brigaded with Generals Hampton, L. S. Baker, James B. Gordon, and Barringer. It fought in many campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia, including the battles at Frayser's Farm, Malvern Hill, Fairfax Court House, Sharpsburg, General J.E.B. Stuart's raid into Pennsylvania, Hampton's raid to Dumfries, Brandy Station, Aldie, Upperville, Carlisle, Gettysburg (Order of Battle), Buckland MillsMine Run, WildernessTodd's TavernReams Station, Hampton's Cattle Raid, and Five Forks. The 1st Cavalry had 407 effectives at Gettysburg and 8 at Appomattox. The field officers were Colonels Lawrence S. Baker, W. H. Cheek, James B. Gordon (later promoted to Brigadier General; mortally wounded at the Battle of Meadow Bridge; and cousin to Major General John B. Gordon), Robert Ransom, Jr., and Thomas Ruffin; Lieutenant Colonels Rufus Barringer and William H. H. Cowles; and Majors Thomas N. Crumpler, George S. Dewey, Marcus D. L. McLeod, and John H. Whitaker.

2nd North Carolina Infantry Battalion***

2nd Infantry Battalion was formed at Garysburg, North Carolina, during the fall of 1861. Five companies were from Madison, Stokes, Randolph, Surry, and Forsyth counties, one from Mecklenburg County, Virginia, and two from Pike and Meriwether counties, Georgia. The Virginia company was transferred in September 1862 and the Georgia commands in mid-1863. The battalion relocated to the coast and was captured in the Battle of Roanoke Island. After being exchanged, it was assigned to General Daniel's and Grimes' Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It served from Gettysburg to Cold Harbor, fought in the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns under General Early, and was active around Appomattox. It lost 3 killed and 5 wounded at Roanoke Island and of the 240 engaged at Gettysburg, sixty-four percent were disabled. The battalion surrendered with 3 officers and 49 men. The field officers were Lieutenant Colonels Hezekiah L. Andrews, Wharton J. Green, and Charles E. Shober; and Majors Marcus Erwin, John M. Hancock, and James J. Iredell.

2nd North Carolina Cavalry Regiment***
(AKA 19th North Carolina Regiment State Troops)
 
19th Regiment Volunteers-2nd Cavalry was organized at Kittrell's Springs, North Carolina, in September 1861. The men were from the counties of Gates, Iredell, Cherokee, Hertford, Cumberland, Nash, Wilson, Franklin, Guilford, Beaufort, Bertie, Moore, Northampton, and Orange. The regiment was assigned to General W. H. F. Lee's, L. S. Baker's, James B. Gordon's, and Barringer's Brigade. It  fought in the conflicts at New Bern, Hanover Court House, Fredericksburg, Gen. Stuart's raid into Pennsylvania, Brandy Station, Upperville, Hanover, GettysburgTodd's Tavern, Haw's Tavern, Staunton River Bridge, Wilson's Farm, Hampton's Cattle Raid, and Five Forks. This unit had 145 effectives at Gettysburg and the records reflect 7 at Appomattox. Its commanders were Colonels Clinton M. Andrews, Matthew L. Davis, Jr., William P. Roberts, William G. Robinson, Samuel B. Spruill, and Solomon Williams, and Majors John V. B. Rogers and John W. Woodfin.

6th North Carolina Cavalry Regiment*
(AKA 65th North Carolina Regiment-6th Cavalry)
 
6th North Carolina Cavalry Regiment was officially organized by the consolidation of the 5th and 7th North Carolina Cavalry Battalions. The unit was also known as the 65th North Carolina Regiment-6th Cavalry and the 65th North Carolina State Troops. The 5th North Carolina Cavalry Battalion organized at Jacksboro, Tennessee, during the fall of 1862. It contained five companies and skirmished the Federals in Tennessee and Kentucky. In August 1863 the unit consolidated with the 65th North Carolina Regiment-6th Cavalry. Lieutenant Colonel John B. Palmer and Major Alfred H. Baird were in command. The 7th North Carolina Cavalry Battalion was organized during the summer of 1862 with six companies. The unit skirmished in Tennessee and Kentucky until August 1863 when it reorganized with the 65th North Carolina Regiment-6th Cavalry. Lieutenant Colonel George N. Folk and Major Thaddeus P. Siler were in command. This consolidation transpired on August 3, 1863, under terms of special order 183, paragraph 16, from the Confederate Adjutant and Inspector General's Office. The unit also conducted operations in Georgia, the Cumberland Gap, and throughout North Carolina: Ringgold, GA, September 11, 1863; Chickamauga, GA., September 19, 1863; Philadelphia, TN., October 20, 1863; Plymouth, N.C., October 31, 1864; Kinston, N.C., March 10, 1865. The 6th Cavalry suffered its greatest loss at the Battle of Chickamauga.

 11th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***
(AKA Bethel Regiment)

11th Infantry Regiment was organized at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina, in March 1862. The nucleus of this unit was comprised of men with prior service in the 1st (Bethel) North Carolina Regiment. Its members were from the counties of Mecklenburg, Burke, Bertie, Chowan, Orange, Lincoln, and Buncombe. Assigned to the Department of North Carolina, it fought at White Hall and then relocated to Virginia. While in Virginia, the unit was assigned to General Pettigrew's, Kirkland's, and MacRae's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It fought on many battlefields from Gettysburg to Cold Harbor, endured the hardships of the Siege of Petersburg, and saw action around Appomattox. It lost over half of the 617 at Gettysburg, reported 15 casualties at Bristoe, and surrendered 8 officers and 74 men. The field officers were Colonels Collett Leventhorpe and William J. Martin, Lieutenant Colonels Francis W. Bird and William A. Owens, and Major Egbert A. Ross.

14th North Carolina Cavalry Battalion*
(AKA 69th North Carolina Regiment; 7th North Carolina Cavalry Regiment)

14th Cavalry Battalion, formerly Woodfin's Battalion, was organized at Asheville, North Carolina, during the summer of 1862 with three companies; later increased to six. The men were from Buncombe, Haywood, Transylvania, and Madison counties. It was assigned to North Carolina and southern Virginia. In the spring of 1865 it added four companies from Buncombe, Henderson, and Transylvania counties and was officially designated the 69th North Carolina Regiment-7th Cavalry, Lt. Colonel James L. Henry, commanding. There are only two references to the Sixty-ninth North Carolina Regiment in the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; both references are to Lt. Colonel Henry and the cavalry regiment (O.R., i, 49, i, 1034 and O.R., i, 49, i, 1035). The other references to Henry's Cavalry are the Sixty-ninth North Carolina and Sixty-ninth North Carolina State Troops. The regiment fought at Salisbury on April 12 and disbanded near Morgantown on April 17. Lt. Colonel James L. Henry and Major Charles M. Roberts were in command.

 16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment*

16th Infantry Regiment was formerly the 6th Volunteers. The unit completed its organization at Raleigh, North Carolina, in June 1861. Its soldiers were from the counties of Jackson, Burke, Madison, Yancey, Rutherford, Buncombe, Macon, Henderson, and Polk. Sent to Virginia with about 1,200 men, the regiment was assigned to General W. Hampton's, Pender's, and Scales' Brigade. The regiment fought at Antietam and served in many battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, from Seven Pines to Cold Harbor. It was involved in the long Petersburg siege south of the James River and was active around Appomattox. It had a force of 721 men in April 1862, and at Frayser's Farm in the Seven Days Battles it lost 33 killed and 199 wounded. It had 8 killed and 44 wounded at Second Manassas, and suffered 6 killed and 48 wounded at Fredericksburg. The regiment reported 105 casualties at Chancellorsville, and of the 321 engaged at Gettysburg, thirty-seven percent were disabled. It also  surrendered 12 officers and 83 men. The field officers were Colonels Champion T. N. Davis, Stephen Lee, John S. McElroy, and William A. Stowe; Lieutenant Colonels Abel J. Cloud and Robert G. A. Love; and Majors Benjamin F. Briggs and Herbert D. Lee. Robert Gustavus Adolphus Love, or R. G. A. Love, initially served as a Captain in the 16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment in the Army of Northern Virginia. When Captain Robert G. A. Love received a promotion to Colonel he transferred to the Sixty-second North Carolina Infantry Regiment.

21st North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

21st Infantry Regiment, formerly the 11th Volunteers, was a twelve company command organized at Danville, Virginia, in June 1861. Men of this unit were recruited in Davidson, Surry, Forsyth, Stokes, Rockingham, and Guilford counties. It was assigned to General Trimble's, Hoke's, Godwin's, and W. G. Lewis' Brigade. It fought at First ManassasSecond Manassas, and Jackson's Valley operations. The unit participated in many conflicts of the army from the Seven Days Battles to Bristoe. It was also involved in the engagements at Plymouth, Drewry's Bluff, and Cold Harbor, marched with Early to the Shenandoah Valley, and saw action around Appomattox. The unit sustained 80 casualties at First Winchester, 13 at Cross Keys and Port Republic, 45 during the Seven Days Battles, 51 at Second Manassas, 18 at Sharpsburg, and 24 at Fredericksburg. It lost 78 at Chancellorsville, twenty-eight percent of the 436 at Gettysburg, and 52 at Plymouth. In April 1865 it surrendered with 6 officers and 117 men of which 40 were armed. The field officers were Colonels Saunders Fulton, B. Y. Graves, James M. Leach, Rufus K. Pepper, William S. Rankin, and William L. Scott; and Majors James F. Beall, Alex. Miller, W. J. Pfohl, and J. M. Richardson.

22nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment**

22nd Infantry Regiment, formerly the 12th Volunteers, completed its organization near Raleigh, North Carolina, in July 1861. The men were recruited in the counties of Caldwell, McDowell, Surry, Ashe, Guilford, Alleghany, Caswell, Stokes, and Randolph. With nearly 1,000 men, the unit was ordered to Virginia and assigned to the Aquia District in the Department of Northern Virginia. Later it was brigaded under Generals Pettigrew, Pender, and Scales. It fought with the army from Seven Pines to Cold Harbor, took its place in the Petersburg trenches south of the James River, and ended the war at Appomattox. In April 1862 this regiment contained 752 men, reported 161 casualties during the Seven Days Battles, had 6 killed and 57 wounded at Second Manassas, and 1 killed and 44 wounded at Fredericksburg. It lost 30 killed and 139 wounded at Chancellorsville, and of the 321 engaged at  Gettysburg over fifty percent were disabled. On April 9, 1865, it surrendered with 13 officers and 97 men. The field officers were Colonels James Conner, Thomas S. Galloway, Jr., Charles E. Lightfoot, and James J. Pettigrew; Lieutenant Colonels Christopher C. Cole, R. H. Gray, John O. Long, and William L. Mitchell; and Majors Laban Odell and W. Lee Russell.  

25th North Carolina Infantry Regiment*

25th Infantry Regiment, formerly the 15th Volunteers, was assembled at Camp Patton, Asheville, North Carolina, in August 1861. The following counties furnished companies for the regiment: Henderson, Jackson, Haywood, Cherokee, Transylvania, Buncombe, Macon, and Clay. It relocated to Grahamville, South Carolina, and remained there until March 1862. The unit returned to North Carolina and then arrived in Virginia on June 24. The unit fought at Antietam and, serving in R. Ransom's and M. W. Ranson's Brigade, it fought at Malvern Hill (during the Seven Days Battles) to Fredericksburg, served in North Carolina, and then saw action at Plymouth and Drewry's Bluff. The 25th participated in the long Richmond-Petersburg Campaign south of the James River and the Appomattox Campaign. It lost several soldiers in The Crater. It reported 128 casualties during the Seven Days Battles, 15 in the Maryland Campaign, 88 at Fredericksburg, and 103 at Plymouth. Many were disabled at Sailor's Creek, and on April 9, 1865, only 8 officers and 69 soldiers were present. The field officers were Colonels Thomas L. Clingman and Henry M. Rutledge; Lieutenant Colonels S. C. Bryson, St. Clair Dearing, and Matthew N. Love; and Majors John W. Francis, William S. Grady, and William Y. Morgan. Colonel Thomas Lanier Clingman, promoted to Brigadier-General, commanded Clingman's Brigade in the Army of Northern Virginia. He was an ardent lawyer and one of the most outspoken politicians of his era and his proslavery and states' rights positions climaxed with his quote to Congress: "Do us justice and we stand with you; attempt to trample on us and we separate!" Also see: Company G ("Highland Guards") Flag, 25th North Carolina Infantry Regiment (Replica?) and 25th North Carolina Infantry Regiment.

26th North Carolina Infantry Regiment**

26th Infantry Regiment was organized in August 1861 at "Crab Tree," a plantation three miles from Raleigh, North Carolina. Its members were recruited in the counties of Ashe, Chatham, Wilkes, Union, Wake, Caldwell, Moore, Alamance, Randolph, and Anson. A female Soldier also enlisted in the 26th. The regiment served at Fort Macon, on Bogue Island, North Carolina, then fought at New Bern. During the war, it was assigned to General R. Ransom's, Pettigrew's, Kirkland's, and MacRae's Brigade. It participated in the Seven Days Battles and conflicts at Rawls' Mills and Goldsboro. The 26th continued the "fight" under the command of the Army of Northern Virginia from Gettysburg to Cold Harbor, took its place in the entrenchments south of the James River, and was involved in the final campaign at Appomattox. It lost 87 killed or wounded at New Bern, had 6 killed and 40 wounded during the Seven Days Battles, and of the 843 engaged at Gettysburg, more than eighty percent were disabled. The unit reported 16 killed and 83 wounded at Bristoe and on April 9, 1865, surrendered 10 officers and 120 men. Its commanders were Colonels Henry K. Burgwyn, Jr., John R. Lane, and Zebulon B. Vance. Colonel Zebulon Vance became North Carolina's Governor (1862-1865 and 1877-1879), and also served in the United States Senate from 1879-1892; Lieutenant Colonels James T. Adams and John T. Jones; and Majors Abner B. Carmichael, James S. Kendall, and N. P. Rankin. The greatest loss sustained by any regiment (North or South) during the war was the Twenty-sixth North Carolina Infantry Regiment at Gettysburg; it advanced more than 800 men into action and more than eighty percent were disabled.  

28th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

28th Infantry Regiment was organized and mustered into Confederate service in September 1861 at High Point, North Carolina. Its members were from the counties of Surry, Gaston, Catawba, Stanley, Montgomery, Yadkin, Orange, and Cleveland. The unit relocated to New Bern and arrived just as the troops were withdrawing from that fight. Ordered to Virginia in May 1862, it was assigned to General Branch's and Lane's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It fought at Hanover Court House and many conflicts of the army from the Seven Days Battles to Cold Harbor. The 28th was involved in the long Petersburg siege south of the James River and the Appomattox operations. It arrived in Virginia with 1,199 men, lost thirty-three percent of the 480 engaged during the Seven Days Battles, 3 killed and 26 wounded at Cedar Mountain, and 5 killed and 45 wounded at Second Manassas. The regiment reported 65 casualties at Fredericksburg and 89 at Chancellorsville. Of the 346 in action at Gettysburg more than forty percent were killed, wounded, or missing. It surrendered 17 officers and 213 men. Its commanders were Colonels James H. Lane, Samuel D. Lowe, and William H. A. Speer; Lieutenant Colonels William D. Barringer and Thomas L. Lowe; and Majors William J. Montgomery, Richard E. Reeves, and S. N. Stowe.

29th North Carolina Infantry Regiment*

29th Infantry Regiment organized at Camp Patton, Asheville, North Carolina, in September 1861 and contained men from Cherokee, Yancey, Buncombe, Jackson, Madison, Haywood, and Mitchell counties. The unit was ordered to East Tennessee and was active in the Cumberland Gap operations. It was assigned to General Rains' and Ector's Brigade and participated in the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee from Stones River (commonly referred to as Murfreesboro) to Atlanta. It engaged in the defense of Vicksburg and marched with General Hood into Tennessee and ended the war at Mobile. It lost twenty-two percent of the 250 engaged at Murfreesboro. The regiment was attached to General Ector's Brigade at Chickamauga and had 110 killed, wounded, or missing. During the Atlanta Campaign, May 18 to September 5, it reported 6 killed, 58 wounded, and 87 missing. At Allatoona, thirty-nine percent of the 138 present were disabled. It surrendered in May 1865. The field officers were Colonels William B. Creasman and Robert B. Vance (brother to Governor Zebulon Baird Vance); Lieutenant Colonels Thomas F. Gardner, James M. Lowry, Bacchus S. Profitt, and William S. Walker; and Major Ezekiel H. Hampton.

33rd North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

33rd Infantry Regiment completed its organization at the old fair grounds at Raleigh, North Carolina, in September 1861. The men were recruited in the counties of Iredell, Edgecombe, Cabarrus, Wilkes, Gates, Hyde, Cumberland, Forsyth, and Greene. After fighting at New Bern, the unit relocated to Virginia and engaged at Hanover Court House. The unit served with Generals Branch and Lane, and participated in the campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from the Seven Days Battles to Cold Harbor. Later it participated in the Petersburg trenches and was involved in the Appomattox operations. This regiment sustained 75 casualties during the Seven Days Battles, 36 at Cedar Mountain, 8 at Second Manassas, and 41 at Fredericksburg. The unit lost forty-two percent of the 480 engaged at Chancellorsville and twenty percent of the 368 at Gettysburg. It reported 4 killed and 19 wounded at Spotsylvania, and 5 killed, 29 wounded, and 4 missing at Jericho Mills. On April 9, 1865, it surrendered 11 officers and 108 men. The field officers were Colonels Clark M. Avery, Lawrence O. Branch, and Robert V. Cowan; Lieutenant Colonels Robert F. Hoke and J. H. Saunders; and Majors William G. Lewis, Thomas W. Mayhew, and James A. Weston. (Also see Lane's Brigade)

34th North Carolina Infantry Regiment**

34th Infantry Regiment was assembled at High Point, North Carolina, in October 1861. Its members were recruited in the counties of Ashe, Rutherford, Rowan, Lincoln, Cleveland, Mecklenburg, and Montgomery. After serving in the Department of North Carolina, it relocated to Virginia and was assigned to General Pender's and Scales' Brigade. The 34th was active in the many campaigns of the army, from the Seven Days Battles to Cold Harbor, participated in the Siege of Petersburg south of the James River, and the operations around Appomattox. It reported 53 killed and 158 wounded during the Seven Days Battles, 2 killed and 23 wounded at Second Manassas, 2 killed and 17 wounded at Fredericksburg, and 18 killed, 110 wounded and 20 missing at Chancellorsville. Of the 310 engaged at Gettysburg, twenty-one percent were disabled. It surrendered 21 officers and 145 men. The field officers were Colonels Collet Leventhorpe, William Lee J. Lowrance, and Richard H. Riddick; Lieutenant Colonels George T. Gordon, Charles J. Hammerskold, William A. Houck, John L. McDowell, and George M. Norment; and Majors George M. Clark, Joseph B. McGee, Eli H. Miller, William A. Owens, Martin Shoffner, and Francis L. Twitty.

35th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

35th Infantry Regiment completed its organization in November 1861 at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina. Its members were recruited in the counties of Mecklenburg, Onslow, McDowell, Moore, Chatham, Person, Union, Henderson, Wayne, and Catawba. After fighting at New Bern, the regiment was ordered to Virginia and assigned to General R. Ransom's and M. W. Ransom's Brigade. It participated in the difficult campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from the Seven Days Battles to Fredericksburg. It returned to North Carolina and fought at Boon's Mill and Plymouth, and advanced to Virginia in May 1864. The 35th engaged at Drewry's Bluff, endured the hardships of the Petersburg siege south of the James River, and ended the war at Appomattox. This unit sustained 127 casualties at Malvern Hill, 25 in the Maryland Campaign, 29 at Fredericksburg, and 103 at Plymouth. Many were disabled at Sailor's Creek (aka Sayler's Creek), and on April 9, 1865, it surrendered 5 officers and 111 men. The field officers were Colonels James T. Johnson, John G. Jones, Matthew W. Ransom, and James Sinclair; Lieutenant Colonels M. D. Craton, Oliver C. Petway, and Simon B. Taylor; and Majors John M. Kelly and Robert E. Petty.

37th North Carolina Infantry Regiment**

37th Infantry Regiment was organized by Colonel C. C. Lee, and assembled at High Point, North Carolina, in November 1861. The men were recruited in the counties of Buncombe, Watauga, Ashe, Mecklenburg, Wake, Alexander, and Gaston. The unit fought at New Bern, and then relocated to Virginia in the spring of 1862. It was assigned to General Branch's and Lane's Brigade in the Army of Northern Virginia, fought at Hanover Court House and Mechanicsville, and participated in many campaigns of the army from the Seven Days Battles to Cold Harbor. It continued the fight in the Petersburg trenches and around Appomattox. This regiment reported 125 casualties during the Seven Days Battles, 15 at Cedar Mountain, 81 at Second Manassas, 93 at Fredericksburg, and 235 at Chancellorsville. Of the 379 engaged at Gettysburg, more than thirty percent were disabled. It surrendered 10 officers and 98 men. The field officers were Colonels William M. Barbour and Charles C. Lee; Lieutenant Colonel John B. Ashcraft, Charles N. Hickerson, and William G. Morris; and Majors Jackson L. Bost, Owen N. Brown, John G. Bryan, Rufus M. Rankin, and William R. Rankin. Colonel Charles C. Lee was killed at the Battle of Mechanicsville, Virginia.            

39th North Carolina Infantry Regiment*

39th Infantry Regiment was organized at Camp Patton, Asheville, North Carolina, in July 1861 as a five company battalion. In November the unit relocated to "Camp Hill" near Gooch Mountain where it was increased to eight companies. In February 1862 it was ordered to Knoxville, Tennessee, where two more companies were added. Its soldiers were from the counties of Cherokee, Macon, Jackson, Buncombe, and Clay. The 39th participated in the Cumberland Gap operations and engaged in the Battle of Perryville. Assigned to Walthall's, McNair's, and Reynold's Brigade, it served with the Army of Tennessee and fought from Murfreesboro (Stones River) to Atlanta, and then endured General Hood's winter campaign in Tennessee. (It had fought in the Battle of Stones River and had engaged in the defense of Vicksburg.) In 1865 the Thirty-ninth North Carolina shared in the defense of Mobile. This regiment lost 2 killed, 36 wounded, and 6 missing at Murfreesboro, and had 10 killed, 90 wounded, and 3 missing at Chickamauga. During the Atlanta Campaign, May 18 to September 5, it reported 16 killed, 57 wounded, and 10 missing. On May 4, 1865, it surrendered. The field officers were Colonel David Coleman, Lieutenant Colonels Hugh H. Davidson and Francis A. Reynolds, and Major T. W. Peirce.

50th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

50th Infantry Regiment completed its organization in April 1862 at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina. Men of this unit were recruited in the counties of Person, Robeson, Johnston, Rutherford, Wayne, Moore, and Harnett. Ordered to Virginia, it fought under General Daniel at Malvern Cliff and then returned to North Carolina. The 50th engaged at New Bern and Washington, transferred to General James Green Martin's Brigade, and for a time served at Wilmington. Subsequently, elements of the regiment were stationed at Plymouth and Washington. In November 1864 it relocated south and shared in the defense of Savannah and skirmished along the Rivers' Bridge. It returned to North Carolina and was placed in General Kirkland's Brigade. The unit continued the fight at Averasborough and fought its last battle at Bentonville. It totaled about 900 effectives in November 1864 and mustered less than half that number in March 1865. It surrendered a force of nearly 250 on April 26. The field officers were Colonels Marshall D. Craton, James A. Washington, and George Wortham; Lieutenant Colonel John C. Van Hook; and Major Henry J. Ryals.

52nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

52nd Infantry Regiment completed its organization at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina, in April 1862. Its members were recruited in the counties of Cabarrus, Randolph, gates, Chowan, Stokes, Richmond, Wilkes, Lincoln, Stanly, and Forsyth. The unit fought at Goldsboro and then relocated to Virginia where it was brigaded with Generals Pettigrew, Kirkland, and MacRae. It served with General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia during Gettysburg, had 2 killed and 25 wounded in the fight at Bristoe, and surrendered with only 6 officers and 60 men. Its commanders were Colonels James K. Marshall and Marcus A. Parks, Lieutenant Colonels Eric Erson and Benjamin F. Little, and Major John Q. Richardson.

53rd North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

53rd Infantry Regiment completed its organization in April 1862 at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina. The men were recruited in the following counties: Guilford, Mecklenburg, Chatham, Surry, Alamance, Stokes, Union, and Wilkes. It served in the Department of North Carolina and then was assigned to General Daniel's and Grimes' Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. The 53rd fought in many conflicts from Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsylvania to Cold Harbor. It participated in all the battles in the Shenandoah Valley, and was active in the Appomattox Campaign. It lost thirty-six percent of the 322 engaged at Gettysburg, had 1 wounded at Bristoe and 2 killed at Mine Run. The unit surrendered 6 officers and 81 men. Its commanders were Colonels James T. Morehead and William A. Owens, and Majors James J. Iredell and John W. Rierson.

54th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

54th Infantry Regiment was organized at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina, in May 1862. The men were from the counties of Rowan, Burke, Cumberland, Northampton, Iredell, Guilford, Polk, Wilkes, Yadkin, Columbus, and Granville. It was assigned to General Law's, Hoke's, Godwin's, and W. G. Lewis' Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It engaged at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville and then guarded prisoners captured at Winchester during the Pennsylvania Campaign. The regiment participated in the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, the conflicts at Plymouth and Drewry's Bluff, Early's Shenandoah Valley Campaigns, and the Appomattox Campaign. This regiment lost 6 killed and 40 wounded at Fredericksburg, 3 killed and 38 wounded at Chancellorsville, and 2 wounded and 306 missing at the Rappahannock River. It totaled about 700 men in July 1864, and surrendered with 4 officers and 53 men of which 23 were armed. The field officers were Colonels James C. S. McDowell, Kenneth M. Murchison, and John Wimbish; Lieutenant Colonel Anderson Ellis; and Major James A. Rogers.

55th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

55th Infantry Regiment was organized at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, North Carolina, in May 1862. Its companies were recruited in the counties of Pitt, Wilson, Wilkes, Cleveland, Burke, Catawba, Johnston, Alexander, Onslow, Franklin, and Granville. The unit served in the Department of North Carolina and then relocated to Virginia where it was assigned to General J. R. Davis' and Cooke's Brigade. It served in the Army of Northern Virginia from Gettysburg to Cold Harbor, served and fought in the Siege of Petersburg south of the James River, and was active in the Appomattox operations. The regiment lost thirty-one percent of the 640 engaged at Gettysburg, and fifty-nine percent of the 340 at the Wilderness. It surrendered with 4 officers and 77 men on April 9, 1865. The field officers were Colonel John K. Connally; Lieutenant Colonels Alfred H. Belo, Abner S. Calloway, and Maurice T. Smith; and Major James S. Whitehead.

56th North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

56th Infantry Regiment completed its organization in July 1862 at Camp Magnum, near Raleigh, North Carolina. Its members were recruited in the counties of Northampton, Cumberland, Pasquotank, Camden, Orange, Cleveland, Alexander, Rutherford, and Mecklenburg. The regiment conducted reconnaissance between Goldsboro, Wilmington, and Tarboro, and then served on the Blackwater. Attached to M. W. Ransom's Brigade, it fought at Gum Swamp, Plymouth, and Drewry's Bluff, endured the hardships of the Siege of Petersburg south of the James River, and fought the enemy around Appomattox. The regiment had 149 men captured at Gum Swamp, lost 4 killed and 84 wounded at Plymouth, and reported 90 casualties at Ware Bottom Church. Many were disabled at Sailor's Creek, and only 9 officers and 62 men surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia. The field officers were Colonel Paul F. Faison, Lieutenant Colonel G. Gratiott Luke, and Majors John W. Graham and Henry F. Schenck.

58th North Carolina Infantry Regiment*

58th Infantry Regiment was organized in Mitchell County, North Carolina, in July 1862. Its twelve companies were recruited in the counties of Mitchell, Yancey, Watauga, Caldwell, McDowell, and Ashe. In September it relocated to the Cumberland Gap and spent the winter of 1862-1863 at Big Creek Gap, near Jacksboro, Tennessee. During the war, it was assigned to Kelly's, Reynolds', Brown's and Reynolds' Consolidated, and Palmer's Brigade. The 58th participated in the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee from Chickamauga to Atlanta, guarded prisoners at Columbia, Tennessee, during Hood's operations, and then relocated to South Carolina and skirmished along the Edisto River. It returned to North Carolina and engaged at Bentonville. It suffered 46 killed and 114 wounded at Chickamauga, totaled 327 men and 186 arms in December 1863, and mustered about 300 effectives at Bentonville. The unit was included in the surrender on April 26, 1865. Its commanders were Colonel John B. Palmer; Lieutenant Colonels Thomas J. Dula, John C. Keener, Edmund Kirby, William W. Proffitt, and Samuel M. Silver.

60th North Carolina Infantry Regiment*

60th Infantry Regiment was organized at Greenville, Tennessee, during the summer of 1862 by adding four companies to the 6th North Carolina State Infantry Battalion. The men were recruited in Asheville and the counties of Madison, Buncombe, and Polk, and a small number were from Tennessee. It was assigned to Preston's, Stovall's, Reynolds', Brown's and Reynolds' Consolidated, and Palmer's Brigade. The 60th fought at Stones River (commonly referred to as Murfreesboro), served in Mississippi, and participated in the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee from Chickamauga to Bentonville. It suffered 3 killed, 65 wounded and 11 missing at Murfreesboro, and in January 1863 had 276 men present for duty. The 60th engaged in the defense of Vicksburg and fought at Murfreesboro (Dec. 7, 1864). Of the 150 engaged at Chickamauga, the unit reported 8 killed, 36 wounded and 16 missing. The 60th North Carolina totaled 106 men and 59 arms in December 1863, and mustered a force of 106 in January 1865. Few surrendered in April. The field officers were Colonels Washington M. Hardy and Joseph A. McDowell; Lieutenant Colonels William H. Deaver, J. M. Ray, and James T. Weaver; and Majors James T. Huff and William W. McDowell. 

61st North Carolina Infantry Regiment***

61st Infantry Regiment was organized at Wilmington, North Carolina, in August 1862. The men were recruited in the counties of Sampson, New Hanover, Beaufort, Craven, Chatham, Lenoir, Wilson, Martin, Ashe, Alleghany, and Jones. It was also assigned to General Clingman's Brigade, Hoke's Division, Army of Northern Virginia. It marched to the Kinston area (Battle of Kinston: 61st North Carolina Infantry Regiment) and engaged in its first action. The unit advanced to Charleston, served on James, Morris, and Sullivan's Islands, and took an active part in the fight at Battery Wagner. Later it was ordered to Virginia where it fought at Drewry's Bluff and Cold Harbor, and then the regiment endured the hardships of the Petersburg siege south and north of the James River. It returned to North Carolina and was prominent in the Battle of Bentonville. While in the Charleston area, July 10 to September 6, 1863, it lost 6 killed, 35 wounded and 76 missing, and in September totaled 331 men. Few surrendered with the Army of Tennessee in April 1865. The field officers were Colonels William S. Davane and James D. Radcliffe, Lieutenant Colonel Edward Mallett, and Major Henry Harding.

62nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment* 

62nd Infantry Regiment was formed at Waynesville, North Carolina, in July 1862. The Sixty-second Regiment was composed almost entirely of men from Western North Carolina. Its soldiers were recruited in the counties of Jackson, Transylvania, Clay, Macon, Rutherford, Henderson, and Haywood. The unit served in North Carolina and East Tennessee; its service proved invaluable in the defense of the vital and strategic Saltworks and railroads. In July 1863 the unit was assigned to General Gracie's Brigade and stationed in the Cumberland Gap. General John Wesley Frazer surrendered the regiment in the Cumberland Gap on September 9, 1863. However, an estimated 600 from various units evaded capture and regrouped in the Asheville area. And in April 1864 it recorded 178 men. The records reflect at least 442 men of the 62nd were prisoners at Camp Douglas. Together, the 58th, 62nd, 64th, and 69th (Thomas' Legion) North Carolina Regiments fought the enemy in East Tennessee and in western North Carolina. It continued the "fight" under Generals Breckinridge, Vaughn, and Williams in East Tennessee, and then became a part of Colonel J. B. Palmer's command at Asheville in March 1865. The unit disbanded near the French Broad River. The field officers were Colonels George W. Clayton and Robert G. A. Love, and Lieutenant Colonel Bryan G. McDowell.
Colonel Robert Gustavus Adolphus Love, or R. G. A. Love, initially served as a Captain in the 16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment in the Army of Northern Virginia. When Captain Robert G. A. Love received a promotion to Colonel he transferred to the 62nd North Carolina Regiment. Major, later Lieutenant Colonel, B. G. McDowell was a native of Macon County, N.C. Early in 1861, he enlisted in the 39th North Carolina Regiment under Colonel David Coleman and was transferred to the 62nd by promotion to Major of the Regiment on July 11, 1862.

64th North Carolina Infantry Regiment (Allen's)*

64th Infantry Regiment organized during the summer of 1862 and was anticipated to be a legion containing thirteen companies of infantry and three of cavalry. Subsequently, the command was reduced to ten companies and designated the 64th North Carolina Infantry Regiment. Its members were recruited predominately from the Western North Carolina counties of Madison, Henderson, and Polk. The unit served in North Carolina and East Tennessee; its service proved invaluable in the defense of the vital and strategic Saltworks and railroads. In early 1863 the 64th was associated with the infamous Shelton Laurel Massacre. In July 1863 the unit was assigned to General Gracie's Brigade and stationed in the Cumberland Gap. While in the Cumberland Gap in September 1863, a fraction of the regiment was surrendered. The records reflect that 288 men of the 64th were prisoners at Camp Douglas. The unit continued fighting with approximately 100 effectives while serving under Generals Breckinridge (14th Vice President of the United States), Vaughn, and Williams in East Tennessee. Together, the 58th, 62nd, 64th, and 69th (Thomas' Legion) North Carolina Regiments fought the enemy in East Tennessee and in western North Carolina. It became part of Colonel J. B. Palmer's Brigade at Asheville in March 1865 and subsequently disbanded near the French Broad River. The unit's commanders were Colonel Lawrence M. Allen, Lieutenant Colonels William N. Garrett and J. A. Keith, and Major Thomas P. Jones. Allen's Regiment was also known for its high desertion rate.

Thomas' Legion (69th North Carolina Infantry Regiment)*

Thomas' Legion (AKA Thomas' Legion of Indians and Highlanders and 69th North Carolina Regiment) was officially organized at Knoxville, Tennessee, during September 1862 by Colonel William Holland Thomas. It was never officially designated the Sixty-ninth North Carolina Regiment. Its soldiers were recruited predominately from the Tar Heel counties of Haywood, Jackson and Cherokee; many were also recruited from East Tennessee. The legion initially totaled 1,125 men and contained an infantry regiment and a cavalry battalion. On September 27, 1862, Thomas was designated as Colonel of the Legion. Unlike a regiment with approximately 1100 soldiers, the legion was a much larger and more comprehensive fighting force. The unit mustered more than two thousand five hundred officers and men, and they were distributed in infantry and cavalry. It added its light artillery battery on April 1, 1863. The size of the legion varied as several companies were transferred, and its service proved invaluable in the defense of the vital and strategic Saltworks and railroads. Together, the 58th, 62nd, 64th, and 69th (Thomas' Legion) North Carolina Regiments fought the enemy in East Tennessee and in western North Carolina. In May 1864 it relocated to ole Virginia and participated in General Jubal Early's Shenandoah Valley Campaign. The unit returned to North Carolina and was active at Soco Gap and Mill Creek, and Thomas surrendered at Waynesville, North Carolina, on May 9, 1865. The legion fought skirmishes and battles in East Tennessee, North Carolina, West Virginia, Virginia and Maryland. The infantry regiment was commanded by Colonel William H. Thomas, Lieutenant Colonel James R. Love II, and Major (later Lt. Col.) William W. Stringfield. Its cavalry battalion served in the command of Lieutenant Colonels James A. McKamy and William C. Walker. Major Stringfield initially served as a Captain in Co. E, 39th Tennessee Mounted Infantry, AKA 31st (W. M. Bradford's) Tennessee Infantry Regiment. Lt. Col. William C. Walker had prior service in the 29th North Carolina Regiment, while James R. Love initially served as a Captain in the Sixteenth North Carolina Regiment.

 UNION:
 
NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENTS

There were eight Union regiments raised in North Carolina, four white and four of African descent. The two mounted infantry units were raised in the Western Region of the state, and all other units were raised in the east.

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Recommended Reading: Confederate Military History Of North Carolina: North Carolina In The Civil War, 1861-1865. Description: The author, Prof. D. H. Hill, Jr., was the son of Lieutenant General Daniel Harvey Hill (North Carolina produced only two lieutenant generals and it was the second highest rank in the army) and his mother was the sister to General “Stonewall” Jackson’s wife. In Confederate Military History Of North Carolina, Hill discusses North Carolina’s massive task of preparing and mobilizing for the conflict; the many regiments and battalions recruited from the Old North State; as well as the state's numerous contributions during the war. Continued below...

During Hill's Tar Heel State study, the reader begins with interesting and thought-provoking statistical data regarding the 125,000 "Old North State" soldiers that fought during the course of the war and the 40,000 that perished. Hill advances with the Tar Heels to the first battle at Bethel, through numerous bloody campaigns and battles--including North Carolina’s contributions at the "High Watermark" at Gettysburg--and concludes with Lee's surrender at Appomattox.

 

Recommended Reading: The Civil War in North Carolina. Description: Numerous battles and skirmishes were fought in North Carolina during the Civil War, and the campaigns and battles themselves were crucial in the grand strategy of the conflict and involved some of the most famous generals of the war. John Barrett presents the complete story of military engagements across the state, including the classical pitched battle of Bentonville--involving Generals Johnston and Sherman--the siege of Fort Fisher, the amphibious campaigns on the coast, and cavalry sweeps such as General Stoneman's Raid. Also available in hardcover: The Civil War in North Carolina.

Sources: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Walter Clark, Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Great War 1861-1865; National Park Service: American Civil War; National Park Service: Soldiers and Sailors System; Weymouth T. Jordan and Louis H. Manarin, North Carolina Troops, 1861-1865; D. H. Hill, Confederate Military History Of North Carolina: North Carolina In The Civil War, 1861-1865; Vernon H. Crow, Storm in the Mountains: Thomas' Confederate Legion of Cherokee Indians and Mountaineers; Christopher M. Watford, The Civil War in North Carolina: Soldiers' and Civilians' Letters and Diaries, 1861-1865. Volume 2: The Mountains; William F. Fox, Regimental Losses in the American Civil War.

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