Reminiscences Of The Confederate States Navy
Captain C. W. READ
When I received intelligence that my native State, Mississippi, had by
the sovereign will of her people, severed her connection with the American Union, I was serving as a midshipman on board the
United States steam frigate "Powhatan," then stationed at Vera Cruz, Mexico. I immediately tendered my resignation, which
was duly forwarded by the Commodore to the Secretary of the Navy at Washington. By the steamer from New Orleans, which arrived at Vera Cruz about the last of February, 1861, I received private
advices that my resignation had been accepted, but no official information to that effect reached me. The day after the arrival
of the mail steamer the United States sloop of war "Macedonian" joined
the squadron, and brought orders for the "Powhatan" to proceed to the United
States. On the 13th of March we arrived and anchored off the Battery, in the harbor of New York. The following day I started
for the South, and was soon in Montgomery, the capital of
the Confederate States. I called on Mr. Mallory, the Secretary of the Navy, who received me kindly, and informed me that no
doubt my services would soon be needed by the Government. I also called on Mr. Davis, with whom I was acquainted. He asked
me many questions about the Naval Academy,
and the naval service, and seemed anxious to know how the officers of the navy from the South regarded the secession of the
States. He said he hoped there would be no war, but if coercion was attempted, that the army of the South would be the place
for a young man with a military education.
I met several naval officers in Montgomery who, like myself, had resigned from the United
States service, among them the gallant Lieutenant Hartstine, of Arctic exploration fame.
There were a great many strangers, from the different sections of the country, at that time in the capital of the Confederacy.
I formed the acquaintance of quite a number of them, and received my first information of how the people of the South regarded
the events of the day. From what I could learn, the people of the South were almost unanimously in favor of the secession
of the States, for the reason that they could see no other way of protecting their rights; but they hoped for peace and the
friendship of the people of the North, and a great many hoped for a reunion, in which there would be no contentions, and in
which the people of the South would be guaranteed equal rights with all the States.
I had been in Mississippi but a few days, when the country was aware that war had commenced,
and that the stronghold of Fort Sumter,
in Charleston harbor, had been compelled to surrender to the
Southern forces. Soon news came that Lincoln had called for
75,000 men to march upon the States which had swung loose from the Federal Union. The youth of the South sprung to arms in
obedience to the call of their President, and everywhere the fife and drum were heard. It was, indeed, hard for me to keep
from volunteering for the army, but I remembered that the South had but few sailors and would need them all on the water.
On the 1st day of May, 1861, I reported, in obedience to an order from the Secretary of the Navy, to Captain Rosseau, of the
Confederate States navy, at New Orleans for duty on the Confederate
steamer McRae. I was directed by Captain Rosseau to go over to Algiers
and report to Lieutenant T. B. Huger, the commander of the steamer. I found Lieutenant Huger an agreeable gentleman, and felt
that he was just the man I would like to serve under. He directed me to take charge of the sailing Master's department, and
to push ahead as rapidly as possible, as he was desirous of getting the ship ready for sea before the blockade could be established.
The McRae was a propeller of about 600 tons, barque rigged, and mounted six thirty two pounders, one nine inch Dahlgreen gun
on pivot, and one twenty four pounder brass rifle, also on pivot, making in all eight guns. The line officers above me were
Lieutenants Warley, Egleston and Dunnington, all of the old navy. The midshipmen were Stone, John Comstock, Blanc and Morgan.
Our surgeon was Dr. Linah, of South Carolina, and the purser
was the best old gentleman in the world, Mr. Sample. The steamer Sumter, a propeller of 400 tons, mounting five guns and commanded
by Commander R. Semmes, was fitting out near us. Captain Semmes was untiring in his efforts to get his vessel ready for sea,
and finally threw his guns aboard in a half fitted state, started down the river, and in a few days was on the ocean destroying
the commerce of the enemy. While the McRae was getting ready for sea, Captain Higgins, formerly of the navy, but at
that time on the staff of General Twiggs, proposed an expedition to capture the Launches of the enemy that were raiding in
the Mississippi Sound, and called on Captain Huger for volunteers, which were readily furnished.
So taking one thirty two pounder, one eight inch gun and two howitzers, we armed and manned two of the lake steamers. We went
through the Sound but did not find the boats of the enemy. It was decided by Captain Higgins that we would land our guns on
Ship Island and hold on there until troops
could be brought from New Orleans. We commenced landing about
4 P. M., and after very hard work got our guns through the soft sand, up to the highest point of the island, and parapets
around them before dark. Our steamers left as soon as the guns were on shore. About dark a steamer was made out coming in
from seaward, and it was evident to all that she was a gunboat of the enemy. The light on the island had been kept burning
as usual since the war commenced, but on this night it was extinguished. After dark the gunboat fired a couple of guns, as
it seemed, to let the light keeper know that a light was needed. However, the gunboat came in and anchored within a mile of
our position. The next morning at dawn of day Lieutenant Warley, who commanded us, directed me to open fire on the steamer
with the eight inch gun. As soon as the first shot had been fired, some one on lookout on the lighthouse reported that the
steamer had up a white flag. As it was rather misty, it was believed by the commanding officer that the enemy had surrendered.
Smoke was seen issuing from his funnel however, and some of us suspected that he meant anything else than striking his colors.
In a few minutes all doubts were dispelled by a thirty two pound shell, which came whizzing from the steamer, knocking the
sand in our faces and exploding amongst us. We now opened with all of our guns, but with what effect we could not ascertain.
The gunboat replied briskly, but fired wildly. In about an hour, the steamer having raised steam, withdrew out of range and
proceeded out to sea. That afternoon our steamers returned, bringing the Fourth Louisiana Regiment, in charge of Colonel Allen.
Our sailors embarked and went back to the city.
The McRae was soon out
of the hands of the carpenters, and started up to Baton Rouge
for her ordnance stores. Near that place some portion of her machinery gave way, and we were compelled to return to New Orleans for repairs. In a few weeks our engines were reported in
good order, and every preparation for sea having been completed, we bade adieu to our friends in the city and steamed down
the river. Arriving at the forts, some forty miles from the sea, we anchored and let our steam go down. The Joy, a
side wheel river boat, formerly a towboat, occasionally reconnoitered the river below. Once and awhile the McRae got
under way and went down the river as far as the Jump, or up as far as the quarantine. One day, while at the Jump, a steamer
was discovered coming up the river. We went to quarters and awaited under way the report of the Joy, which was in advance
of the approaching steamer. The stranger proved to be a French man of war, and informed us that he had arrived off the Southwest
Pass the night before; had grounded in trying to get over the bar; that he saw no blockading vessels until 10 o'clock next
day, when a small side wheel gunboat called the Water Witch arrived off the Pass.
Captain Geo. N. Hollins had now arrived in New Orleans and assumed command of all our naval
forces in the Mississippi river. He was aware that the Government was anxious for the McRae
to get to sea, and he at once commenced preparations to open the river. Some enterprising and patriotic citizens of New Orleans had purchased a very staunch, fast double propeller of about
300 tons, which had been a towboat on the river, and was known as the Enoch
This steamer was arched over from the water line with 20 inches of
oak, and covered with two inch iron plates. An iron prow was placed on her. She mounted one 9 inch gun, which could be fired
only right ahead. She was commanded by Captain Stevenson, who was part owner and designer of the ram. The McRae was
at the forts when the ram (now called the Manassas)
came down on her trial trip. By order of Commodore Hollins, Lieutenant Warley, senior lieutenant, of the McRae, took
the ram from her owners and assumed command of her. The enemy's vessels had now ascended the river and were at anchor at the
Passes. They consisted of one large sloop of war, the Richmond,
carrying a formidable battery of 20 guns; two sailing sloops of war, and a small steamer, the Water Witch. Commodore
Hollins determined to attack the enemy and endeavor to sink the Richmond
and drive the sailing ships ashore or destroy them with fire rafts. So on the night of our fleet, consisting of the Manassas, the McRae, Joy, Calhoun, and the
tugboats Tuscarora and Watson, each with a fire raft, started from the forts. On arriving at about ten miles
from the head of the Passes, where the enemy's gunboats lay, the Manassas was directed
to proceed in advance and run into the Richmond at
full speed. The tugs followed, and were instructed to set fire to their combustible rafts, or barges, as soon as the Manassas should throw up a rocket, which was the signal that
she had obeyed her instructions. The night was dark, and we all waited anxiously for the signal. Presently a rocket was seen
to shoot high in the air, and in a few minutes the thunder of a broadside told us the Yankee bluejackets were at their guns.
The fire rafts were lighted and drifted down the river with the current; a few colored lights were seen down the river, and
all was quiet. Those were anxious moments for us on the McRae, who, standing afar off in the dark, were waiting for
daylight to tell us of the fate of our friends on the Manassas.
At early dawn the ram was alongside of the bank of the river near the head of the Passes. We soon ascertained that she had
run into a ship; had entangled her propellers, disabled her engines, and carried away her smokestacks. All of our vessels
now proceeded down the Southwest Pass, ,
and soon we made out the Richmond and Vincennes
aground on the bar. On arriving at extreme range we fired a few shots -- all of which fell short. One of the enemy's shells
falling near the Joy, who had ventured nearer than the other boats, signal was made to "withdraw from action" and we
steamed gallantly up the river. At the head of the Passes a small schooner, loaded with coal, was found aground; also a small
boat belonging to the Richmond. There were no blockading
vessels of Pass a' Loute, and Captain Huger was about to proceed to sea in obedience to his orders from the Secretary of the
Navy, and to take advantage of what was regarded as the object of the expedition, when the McRae was ordered to follow
the other boats up the river to the forts. The belief was general that the Manassas
had sunk one of the enemy's ships, but which one, no one could tell, as two were on the bar and the other two were off Southwest Pass at
sea. It was afterwards ascertained that the Manassas had run in between the Richmond and the coal schooner alongside of her, and had injured
neither. All on the McRae thought we would go down the following night, but great was our disappointment when we found
that we were neither to attack the enemy again nor attempt to go to sea. We went to New
Orleans, and I am sorry to say the good people of that city applauded us. After remaining several days
off New Orleans, the McRae filled up with coal and
proceeded down the river to run the blockade. Our engines not working smoothly, we returned to the city for repairs, after
which we managed to get down as far as the quarantine, where most of our men took the swamp fever, and where we finally received
orders not to run the blockade.
The three senior line officers were now ordered
to other duty and I became executive officer. We sent down our spars, unbent our sails, and became a river gunboat. The commanding
officer having accompanied Commodore Hollins, by rail to Columbus, Kentucky, I was directed to proceed with the McRae up the river to that point where
in due season we arrived. Columbus was then held by the Confederate
forces under General Polk. The battle of Belmont had just been fought, and the enemy was concentrating
at Cairo. The Yankees had two small wooden gunboats above
Columbus. A number of ironclads had arrived at Cairo, but they were without guns or sailors. The Confederates had at Columbus,
the Manassas, McRae (8), Polk (5), Jackson
(2), and Calhoun (2). A small fort below Cairo was
all the Confederate gunboats would have to encounter. An advance was urged by many of us. The enemy's gunboats were allowed
to take on board their armaments, to receive their sailors, and with a fleet of transports and men to bring the first disaster
to the Southern arms -- the capture of forts Donalson and Henry. Columbus was evacuated and
the guns of the fortifications were placed in position on Island 10, a short distance. Our
gunboats now dropped down to New Madrid to assist in defending that place. The gunboats Pontchartrain and Joy joined our squadron,
which was known out West by the title of "Hollins' fleet."
The enemy's fleet
under their intrepid Commander Foote, appeared in front of No. 10 and commenced throwing their mortar shells into our works.
Occasionally the fight was varied by a sharp stand up fight between the gunboats and the batteries, in which the forts seemed
to get the best of it. The Yankee gunboats were mostly Mississippi river steamboats, strengthened
and casemated with wood and covered with felt and iron, and were designated "tinclads." They could resist field pieces, but
not heavy artillery.
New Madrid is situated
on the right bank of the river, and is about ten miles below Island 10. A good road leads
to Cape Gerideau, a point on the river above
Cairo. Hence, New Madrid was an important point as long as
we held No. 10. The place was poorly fortified, had an insufficient garrison, and was commanded by an Arkansas demagogue by the name of Gant. Jeff. Thompson, with his few "Jayhawkers," galloped
around the town occasionally, and once brought in a Yankee cavalryman too Dutch to give any account of himself.
On the 3d day of March, 1862, the enemy's forces under Pope appeared in front of New Madrid, and entrenching themselves commenced
an investment. Our gunboats shelled them continually and did very good service, and the Confederate batteries annoyed the
enemy's working parties considerably. I saw Gant when the Yankee shells first began to fall in our lines. He took the "shell
fever" quicker than any man I ever saw. This man Gant, afterwards deserted the Confederate cause when it began to wane before
the overwhelming legions of foreign mercenaries that flocked over the sea in 1864 to get good rations and $900 bounties! On
the night of March 13th it was decided to evacuate New Madrid. A darker and more disagreeable night it is hard to conceive;
it rained in torrents, and our poor soldiers, covered with mud and drenched with rain, crowded on our gunboats, leaving behind
provisions, camp equipments and artillery. Gant was so demoralized that he forgot to call in his pickets.
Our fleet was at this time strengthened by the arrival of the Maurapas, a large side wheel steamer, having her machinery
protected by an ironclad casemate. She was commanded by Lieutenant Joseph Fry. She mounted five rifleguns -- pivots. A similar
gunboat, the Livingston, Commander Pinckney, also arrived. Our gunboats after landing from New Madrid, took a position
at Tiptonville, a point 30 miles below No. 10, by the river, -- but only four miles by land. It was therefore an important
point. We had been at Tiptonville but a few days, when early one morning we perceived a number of men on the opposite side
of the river from us, engaged in throwing down a large pile of wood that had been placed on the bank for the use of our transports.
About the time Commodore Hollins had made up his mind to send over and ascertain who the party were, a puff of smoke was seen
to rise near the men, and a shell came screaming across the river, striking the bank near us. Fortunately our boats had steam
up. The signal was hoisted on the McRae to engage the battery at "close quarters." The gunboat Maurapas was
the first boat under way, and followed by the Polk and Pontchartrain, thundered away at the Yanks. The McRae
fired away at long range, but soon perceiving a small yawlboat adrift (which had been cut from the Maurapas by a shell),
we ceased firing, and went a mile below to pick up the boat. In the meantime the Polk had received a shot between wind and
water, and signalized that she was leaking badly. The Yankees had left all their guns except one and were firing slowly and
wildly, when the McRae signaled to "withdraw from action." So we all steamed down the river five or six miles and anchored.
The next day the enterprising Yankees opened fire on us from the shore with some light guns; we replied for a few minutes,
and again "withdrew from action." The Commodore stated that it was useless to fight batteries with wooden gunboats, as the
guns on shore were protected by parapets, and that nothing was to be gained even if he did succeed in killing a few artillerymen.
Our gunboats were ridiculed by Confederate soldiers and citizens, and treated with contempt by the enemy. By the urgent request
of the commander of our troops at Island 10, one of our gun boats was sent up to Tiptonville
with supplies every night, and though the enemy's batteries fired at them regularly, not one of their shots ever took effect.
The night of April 4th 1862, was one of those dark, stormy, rainy nights that they have up there at that season of the year.
On that night one of the enemy's gunboats ran the batteries at No. 10. She was a tinclad called the Carondelet, and
mounted 13 guns. For a few days she remained under the guns at New Madrid; but perceiving that our gunboats were not disposed
to molest her, she went along the east bank of the river below New Madrid, and attacked in detail our small batteries which
had been constructed to prevent the crossing off troops. One day we received information that the tinclad was ferrying the
men of General Pope's army over to a point above Tiptonville, and the general commanding at No. 10 urged Commodore Hollins
to attack the gunboat with his fleet, for if the enemy got possession of Tiptonville, and the road by which supplies were
sent to No. 10, the evacuation or capture of that place was certain. Commodore Hollins declined to comply with the request
of the general, saying that as the Carondelet was ironclad, and his fleet were all wooden boats, he did not think he
could successfully combat her. Lieutenants Dunnington, Fry and Carter, of the gunboats Pontchartrain, Maurapas
and Polk, begged Commodore Hollins to allow them to attack the enemy's gunboat, but the old commodore was firm in his
decision to remain inactive. The three gunboats mounted together 17 guns, 8 and 9 inch smooth bores, 6 and 7 inch rifles.
That same gunboat Carondelet was afterwards engaged in the Yazoo river by the Arkansas, under the heroic I.
N. Brown, and after an action of twenty minutes (the Arkansas using only her two bow guns, 8 inch), the Carondelet
was driven ashore riddled, disabled and colors down. Pope's army having been safely crossed by the Carondelet, moved
on the rear of No. 10, and in a few days that place with all its fine ordnance and several thousand men surrendered to the
enemy. Our fleet steamed down the river, and anchored under the guns of Fort
Pillow, the next fortified place below. News now reached us that the
fleets of Farragut and Porter had entered the Mississippi river, and had commenced to throw
their mortar shells into Forts Jackson and Saint Phillip. Commodore Hollins telegraphed to the Secretary of the Navy for permission
to go with all the vessels of his fleet to the assistance of the forts below New
Orleans. The Secretary replied to Commodore Hollins to remain where he was, and to "harass the enemy
as much as possible."
The Commodore answered that as all of the enemy's gunboats
on the upper Mississippi were ironclad, while those on the lower river were wood like our
own, he was of the opinion that he could be of more service with his fleet below New Orleans
than at Fort Pillow.
Without waiting to hear further from the department, the Commodore started down the river on the Joy, and ordered the
flag ship McRae to follow as soon as the next in command, Commodore Pinckney, should arrive from Memphis, where he was on leave. The fleet thus left was now under command of the commander
of the McRae, Lieutenant Huger; the day after the commodore left, the fleet proceeded up the river to reconnoiter.
We steamed all day and saw nothing of the enemy. Just after dark our attention was attracted by some one on shore, hailing
and waiving a torch. On sending in to ascertain what was wanted, we were informed that the enemy's fleet was anchored a few
miles above, around a bend in the river. We therefore anchored for the night. The next morning the Pontchartrain went
up to reconnoiter, and sure enough found the fleet of the enemy. The Yankee gunboats, consisting of seven tinclads, came down
in line abreast, and our flotilla started down the river at full speed. The McRae being of great draught, was obliged
to follow the channel of the river. We were forced to steam hard to keep out of range. When we reached Fort Pillow the enemy's fleet was only three
or four miles astern. The Yanks came to, above the fort a few miles, and without delay began to shell it. A few vessels now
arrived at Fort Pillow from New
Orleans belonging to what was known as the "Montgomery
fleet." The State of Louisiana had appropriated a large sum of money for the defence of the
Mississippi river. The funds were given to General Lovel, at New Orleans,
and he at once set to work and had all of the powerful, fast and staunch towboats and ocean steamers at New Orleans fitted as rams and gunboats. They were all strengthened and protected with wood
and iron, and were really the most serviceable and formidable war vessels of the river on either side. The general superintendence
of the fitting out and manning of these boats was entrusted to a steamboat captain by the name of Montgomery, who afterwards
played commodore of a portion of them. Each of these gunboats had a frigate's complement of officers and they all wore the
blue uniform of the United States navy.
The officers of the "Montgomery fleet" were mostly river steamboat men, and of course were very much prejudiced against gentlemen
and officers of the regular naval service; and everywhere on the river, from New Orleans to Fort Pillow, ridicule of the graduates
of the naval school could be heard in all the barrooms and like places that steamboat men frequented and fought the battles
of the Confederacy. The idle talk of those sort of people did not annoy our officers of the navy, and we all hoped that the
fresh water sailors would fight up to their "brags."
Commander Pinckney having
returned to Fort Pillow and assumed command
of our fleet, the "McRae," in obedience to the order of Commodore Hollins, proceeded down to New Orleans, where she arrived in a few days.
The authorities of New Orleans were thoroughly alarmed for the safety of the city, and men
were kept working night and day on the two great ironclads, Mississippi and Louisiana. The McRae was ordered to fill up with coal
and to go down to the forts without delay. Shortly after our arrival at New Orleans,
I called on Commodore Hollins, at the St. Charles Hotel, and was very glad to learn that he proposed to give us a brush with
the enemy. He told me that he intended taking the Louisiana without waiting for her engines to be finished but to use
her as a floating battery, and with the ram Manassas and Montgomery rams (six or eight of them), the McRae
and a number of fire rafts, and to attack the enemy's fleet of wooden ships below the forts and drive them out of the river.
A few hours afterwards I heard that the Commodore had received a dispatch from the Navy Department ordering him to Richmond.
arrived at the forts on the 16th of April, 1862, and anchored close into the bank just above Fort St. Phillip. The enemy's
fleet was around the bend below Fort Jackson,
and his mortar-boats were throwing about ten shells every minute in and around the forts. The river was obstructed by schooners
anchored across the river, in line abreast, between the forts, and chains and lines were passed from vessel to vessel; but
a passage was left open near each bank. The forts were well garrisoned and had a large number of the heaviest guns. There
were six Montgomery rams, one Louisiana ram called the Governor
Moore, the ram Manassas and the McRae and
also a number of fire rafts and towboats -- all on the Fort St. Phillip side of the river between that fort and the point
above. On the 20th of April the large ironclad Louisiana,
mounting 16 guns of the largest and most approved pattern, arrived and anchored just above the obstructions. She was in command
of Commander McIntosh, of the navy. Captain Jno. K. Mitchell was placed in command of all the boats of the Confederate navy,
viz: Louisiana, Manassas
and McRae. The Montgomery rams were under the command of Captain Stevenson, the designer
of the Manassas. The Governor Moore, of the
"Louisiana navy" was in charge of Lieutenant Kennon, formerly
of the navy. Captain Mitchell endeavored to get control of every thing afloat, but succeeded only in obtaining the consent
of the other "naval" commanders to cooperate with him if they should think proper, but under no circumstances were they to
receive or obey orders from any officer of the regular Confederate navy.
Louisiana was in an unfinished condition; several
of her guns were unmounted, and a few could not be used on account of the carriages being too high for the ports. Her machinery
was not all in, and as a steamer she was regarded as a failure; it was believed by competent engineers that she would not
have power sufficient to enable her to stem the current of the Mississippi river during high
water. Mechanics labored day and night to get the Louisiana
ready, as Captain Mitchell designed to move on the enemy as soon as that vessel could be used as a steamer. General Duncan,
who commanded the fortifications of the department, and Colonel Ed. Higgins, who commanded the forts, were both of the opinion
that Captain Mitchell should drop the Louisiana below
Fort St. Phillip and drive the enemy's mortar boats out of range. The mortar shells had injured Fort Jackson somewhat, eight or ten guns having
been rendered unserviceable. Fort St. Phillip was entirely uninjured, as but few shell could
reach it. Captain Mitchell objected to placing the Louisiana in the position desired by the army officers, because he proposed
to attack the enemy in a few days -- that is, as soon as the Louisiana was ready, and he thought Fort Jackson could
stand the mortars for that time; furthermore, he thought it was hazardous to place the Louisiana in mortar range, as
she was not ironed on her decks, and as mortar shells fall almost perpendicularly, if one should strike her on deck it would
probably sink her.
On the afternoon of April 23d I visited Fort Jackson, and with Colonel Higgins observed
from the parapet of the fort the fleet below; their light spars had been sent down, and the ships were arranging themselves
in lines ahead. We were both of the opinion that a move would be made on the forts the following night. So, when I returned
on board the McRae, I directed the cable to be got ready for slipping and a man stationed to unshackle it at a moment's
warning ; one half of the men to be on deck, steam to be up; the guns cast loose and loaded with 5 section shell. I remained
on deck until after midnight, when, retiring to my room, I cautioned the officer of the deck to keep a bright lookout down
the river and call me the moment anything came in sight. At 3 A. M., I was called and informed that a steamer was coming up.
In less than a minute the McRae was under way and her guns blazing at the approaching ships of the enemy. I saw the
rams Governor Moore and Stonewall Jackson rushing for one of the Yankee steamers, but they were soon lost in
the smoke, and I saw them no more. The commanders, officers and men of the Montgomery
rams (except those of the Stonewall Jackson) deserted their vessels at the first gun and fled wildly to the woods.
The enemy's gun boats were soon through the obstructions, and turning their attention to the Confederate flotilla made short
work of it. The deserted rams were set on fire and served as beacons through the darkness and smoke which hung over the river.
On the McRae we had little trouble to find something to fire at, for as we were out in the river the enemy was on every
side of us, and gallantly did our brave tars stand to their guns, loading and firing their guns as rapidly as possible. Our
commander, Lieutenant Huger, was what we all expected -- cool and fearless, and handled the McRae splendidly. One of
the enemy's shell, fired from one of the howitzers aloft, went through our decks and exploded in the sail room, setting the
ship on fire; and as there was only a pine bulkhead of 2 inch boards between the sail room and magazine, we were in great
danger of being blown up. Just then one of the large sloops of war ranged alongside and gave us a broadside of grape and canister,
which mortally wounded our commander, wounded the pilot, carried away our wheel ropes and cut the signal halyards and took
our flag overboard. New tiller ropes were rove and soon we were at close quarters with a large steamer. Just after daylight,
being close into the west bank of the river, about three miles above Fort Jackson, we found one of the Montgomery
rams, the Resolute, ashore, with a white flag flying. I sent Lieutenant Arnold, with twenty men, to take charge of
her and to open fire with her two heavy rifle pivots. At 7.30 A. M. we ceased firing, being at that time about four miles
above the forts. In going around, to return to the batteries, our wheel ropes were again shot away, and the ship ran into
the bank before her headway could be checked. Captain Mitchell sent one of the tugs to our assistance and we were soon afloat.
At 8.30 we anchored near the Louisiana. While we
were aground the ram Manassas was discovered floating
helplessly down the river. I sent a boat to her, and ascertained that she was uninjured, but had her injection pipes cut,
and that it would be impossible to save her.
It was afterwards ascertained that
the enemy's fleet, consisting of twenty ships, under the command of Commodore Farragut, had endeavored to run by the forts;
only thirteen succeeded in passing. The advance was made in two lines en echelon, and the steamers passed through the
gaps in the line of obstructions near each bank. The guns of the forts, being mounted mostly in barbette, were silenced
as soon and as long as the gunboats were in canister range. The passages through which General Duncan thought the enemy could
not pass were the very ones Farragut preferred; for, as his ships carried heavy guns, and plenty of them, it was his object
to get within point blank range, so as to drive the Confederates away from the barbette guns by keeping a steady rain of canister
on them. Had the "Montgomery rams" fought, or towed the fire
Tafts out into the current, it is very doubtful if any of the gunboats would have passed. One of the enemy's gunboats, Veruna
(9 guns), was gallantly assaulted by the rams Governor Moore and Stonewall Jackson. The Governor Moore
hung on to his enemy like an avenging fate, and did not quit him till he sunk him.
Every night, previous to the one the fleet passed, a fire raft had been sent down below the obstructions, and burnt for the
purpose of lighting up the river; but by a strange chance no raft was sent down that night. The importance of having the fire
raft below on that night has been greatly exaggerated; for, after the firing commenced, the smoke was so dense along the river
that a dozen fire rafts would have done but little in showing the ships to the forts. Captain Mitchell has been blamed by
many for not placing the Louisiana in the position
desired by General Duncan. Had the Louisiana been moored below Fort Saint Phillip
there can be no doubt that she would have driven the mortar boats out of range of Fort
Jackson. But by occupying that position she would have done nothing towards
deterring Farragut in executing his bold move; and it is quite certain that she would not have been more serviceable against
steamers under way in one place more than another. The day after the fleet passed the forts I was ordered by Captain Mitchell
to transfer all the officers and men (except barely enough to run the vessel) from the McRae to the Louisiana,
and to carry on board all the Confederate sick and wounded, and to proceed to New Orleans under a flag of truce. The McRae
had been badly cut up in upper works and rigging during the action, besides having several large shots through her near the
water line, which caused her to leak badly; her smokestack was so riddled that it would scarcely stand, and the draft was
so much affected that it was difficult to keep steam in the boilers.
to Captain Mitchell for permission to take the McRae's crew, get the ram Resolute afloat, and at night to go
down, ram one of the mortar fleet, and go on a raid on the coast of New England. The Resolute
was well protected; had two large pivot guns, was full of coal and supplies, was a seagoing steamer, and was faster than any
war vessel the enemy had. Captain Mitchell replied that my proposition would be considered. The following day the enemy's
fleet at the quarantine attacked the Resolute and succeeded in planting a shell forward below the water line, which
exploded and rendered her useless.
On the morning of the 26th the McRae started up the river
under a flag of truce. At the quarantine I went on board the steamer Mississippi, and received permission from the commanding
officer of the squadron to pass his lines with the cartel. On account of the condition of the "McRae's" smokestack we could
get but a small head of steam, and consequently but slow progress against the strong current. We passed various floating wrecks,
which told us too plainly of the destruction of our shipping at New Orleans.
While we all deplored the loss of our rams and gunboats, and the successful advance of such a large number of formidable ships
of the enemy, we confidently expected that the Confederate commanders at New Orleans would use our resources above in such
a way as to make Farragut repent his bold undertaking; for we well knew that the ironclad Mississippi had been launched
at New Orleans and was nearly ready for service, and that the rest of Hollins' fleet and eight Montgomery rams, then above
Memphis, could soon descend the rapid current of the Mississippi river; besides, the large number of river and ocean steamers
on the river could have been readily and easily converted into rams and used successfully against Farragut's wooden fleet.
The Mississippi was a most formidable ironclad, with
plenty of power, and was to mount twenty of the heaviest guns. She could have been ready for action within ten days after
the enemy passed the forts. The lower forts were uninjured, and had six months' provisions, and were supported by the ironclad
About 10 A. M., April 27, the McRae arrived in front of the city. Farragut's fleet was anchored in the stream abreast
of New Orleans, and was treating for the surrender. Getting
permission to land our wounded, the McRae was anchored at the foot of Canal
Street, and all of our poor fellows were landed safely that afternoon. I went on shore to see our
commander, Lieutenant Huger, carried to his residence, and returned on board about 6 P.M. The donkey engine had been going
steadily since the fight, but having become disabled the water was rapidly gaining. I put the crew to work at the bilge pumps.
The steamer commenced dragging just after dark. All the chain was paid out, but she would not bring up; but getting in the
eddy, near the Algiers shore, she swung around several times,
striking once against one of the sunken dry docks, which caused the ship to make water more freely. The pumps were kept going
until daylight next morning. The shot holes having got below the water, the steamer settled fast, and we were obliged to abandon
her. The crew had hardly reached the shore when our good old ship went down. I went on board the enemy's flagship and reported
the occurrence. On the 29th I had prepared to return to the forts in one of the small boats of the McRae, when, going
to the mayor's office to get the flag of truce mail, I was astonished to learn that the forts had surrendered, and that the
Louisiana had been blown up. I went down on the levy
and met a number of the officers and men of the forts and gunboats, and learned that the surrender had been brought about
by a mutiny in Fort Jackson.
Late on the night of the 27th the officers of that fort awoke to find that about two hundred of the garrison were under arms,
had spiked some of the guns, and demanded that the very liberal terms offered the day previous by Commodore Porter, of the
enemy's mortar fleet, be accepted. General Duncan and officers appealed to the men to stand by their colors and country; that
the forts were in good condition and could hold out many months. But the mutineers were firm, and insisted on an immediate
surrender. General Duncan then promised that the forts should be surrendered at daylight.
The men who thus deserted their country in her dark hour were mostly of foreign birth and low origin, and had been demoralized
by the mortar shells, the contentions between the military and naval commanders, the discouraging tone of army officers' conversations,
and the liberal terms offered by Porter. So at early dawn a boat was sent down to inform the enemy that his terms would be
accepted. Fort Saint Phillip, on the opposite side of the river, was entirely unhurt, and was well supplied and had a full
garrison of true men. The Louisiana mounted sixteen
heavy guns, and was invulnerable. Comment is unnecessary.
Before the fleet passed
the forts I talked freely with the officers ashore and afloat, and but one of them would admit the bare possibility of the
enemy's steamers being able to run the batteries. Colonel Edward Higgins (afterwards Brigadier General and one of the most
gallant soldiers in the Confederate army) told me on the afternoon of the 23d of April -- the eve of the attack -- that the
fleet could pass at any time, and probably would pass that very night! When the McRae came down the river, in the summer
of 1861, Duncan had command of the forts. I heard him say
one day that all the vessels in the world could not pass his forts; that the forts had once driven back the fleet of Great Britain; and that at that time the forts were nothing
compared to what they were in 1861. It did not seem to occur to Duncan
that the English ships were sailing vessels, sailing against a strong current; that they were "crank and tall," and mounted
24 pounders, long nines, and such like small ordnance. He was oblivious of the fact that modern war ships carried huge 11
inch pivots and 9 inch broadside guns, and that a double stand of grape and canister were prescribed by the naval manual of
the United States.
At Jackson, Mississippi, shortly after the fall of New Orleans, I met several of my naval friends, who had been in the city when the news of Farragut's
passing the forts was known, and from them I heard the particulars of the destruction of the great ironclad steamer Mississippi. There was no real effort made to get that vessel
up the river; two river steamboats, poorly commanded and miserably handled, made a show of trying to tow the ironclad, humbugged
a few minutes, and then set her on fire. The assertion that the Mississippi could not have
been towed up to Vicksburg by the steamers at New
Orleans is perfectly absurd. The large flat bottomed, square ended floating battery built at New Orleans, was easily towed up to Columbus.
The naval steamer Joy was a regular lower river towboat. The magnificent steam ship Star of the West, one of
the Pacific mail steamers a powerful double walking beam engine ship of over 3,000 tons, was in command of a Lieutenant Bier,
but instead of taking hold of the Mississippi -- the hope of the great Southwest -- he steamed gallantly away. The
Mississippi could have towed under the guns at Vicksburg,
and in ten days would have been ready for service. She was invulnerable to any shot the enemy had at that time, and as the
enemy had only wooden ships below, there can be no doubt that Farragut's fleet would have been driven out of the river or
After the fall of New Orleans I proceeded
to Richmond, and there received orders to report to Commander
Pinkney for duty in the fleet formerly commanded by Commodore Hollins. I lost no time in getting out West. At Memphis I got on a river steamer and started up to report. At this time the ridicule of "Hollin's
fleet" was so great and general, that I was really ashamed to own that I was on my way to join it, and it was only the hope
of getting on detached duty that prevented me from throwing up my commission in the navy and joining the army. At Randolph, a few miles below Fort Pillow, I found Commander Pinkney with the gunboats Polk and Livingston.
He gave me command of two heavy guns, mounted on a bluff four miles below Randolph.
The guns of the Polk and Livingston had been placed in batteries on shore at Randolph. It was hard to understand why the guns had been taken off the gunboats. Randolph could not hold out if Fort Pillow fell, and as Pinkney had no infantry supports, he was at the mercy of the Yankee
raiders by land. At this time there were eight of the Montgomery rams at Fort Pillow; they
had had an engagement with the enemy, and all the steam boatmen were jubilant. On the 4th of May, 1862, General Jeff. Thompson
was placed in command of the Montgomery fleet and at
once determined to see what they could do. The enemy's fleet of tinclads, mortar boats and transports, were around the bend
above Fort Pillow.
Thompson proposed to ram the tinclads and asked Commander Pinkney to go up and use the guns of his four gunboats against the
mortar boats, and against light draft boats that might run into shoal water; but the "Artful Dodger" could not see it, and
so old Jeff. went up with the rams, and without much system went in, rammed one or two of the Yankee vessels, which were only
saved from sinking by running into shoal water. The fight lasted only a few minutes, and the Confederates dropped back under
the guns of Fort Pillow.
The Montgomery rams were uninjured, having resisted the heaviest
shot at close quarters. Had Pinkney cooperated more might have been accomplished.
One month after this attack the Confederates evacuated Fort
Pillow. As soon as Commander Pinkney heard of the evacuation, he hurried
away, leaving everything standing -- the executive officer of the Polk, Lieutenant Stone, disobeyed orders, and saved two
guns. The gunboats left Randolph twenty four hours before the last transport got away from
The gunboats Maurapas and Pontchartrain had already been sent up White river,
where, under the gallant Commanders Fry and Dunnington, they did efficient service. The Livingston and Polk
succeeded in getting up the Yazoo river to Liverpool landing. As soon as the enemy learned
that Fort Pillow had been evacuated, Foote's
fleet started down, and on June 5th arrived in sight of Memphis.
The bluffs at Memphis were crowded with people upon the approach
of the enemy's fleet. The Montgomery rams, jeered, hooted
and cheered by the populace, turned and advanced to meet the Yankee gunboats, but their courage failed them under fire, and
they ignominiously burnt the rams and the crews crawled and scampered over the levees for safety. One of the rams, the Van
Dorn, being a little lame -- unable to steam over 15 miles an hour -- started on a retreat early, escaped, and joined
Pinkney up the Yazoo.
I had been in command
of the battery below Randolph but a few days, when I received orders to dismount my guns and
ship them up White river to Lieutenant Fry. I was then sent to Vicksburg to recruit men for Pinkney's boats.
Just before the evacuation of Fort Pillow
the Confederates had launched at Memphis a very pretty little gunboat called Arkansas. She was about four hundred tons, double propeller, was to be ironclad,
and to mount ten guns. When the news reached Memphis that our people were evacuating Fort Pillow, the Arkansas
and all of the river transports were run up the Yazoo river, where they were protected by
batteries on shore and a raft across the stream. Pinkney's boats and the Van Dorn arrived at Liverpool
landing too late to get above the raft. The two guns saved by Lieutenant Stone were placed on shore, and several smaller guns
were also mounted. The sailors and Mississippi troops manned
the batteries. The crews of the gunboats lived on board.
The unfinished Arkansas
was towed up to Yazoo City.
The officer in charge of her seemed indifferent as to the time of her completion. The leading citizens of the town telegraphed
to Richmond and asked that an energetic officer be placed
in command and the steamer be got ready without delay. Accordingly the Department detailed Lieutenant I. N. Brown, of the
navy, to superintend the work and to assume command. When Lieutenant Brown arrived in Yazoo
City he found the Arkansas
without any iron on her, her ports not cut, and in fact quite a lot of work to be done by carpenters and machinists. The barge
which had brought down the iron for the shield or covering for the casemate had been carelessly sunken in the Yazoo River. Lieutenant Brown was untiring
in his efforts to complete his vessel. He took some stringent measures; imprisoned several people who were disposed to trifle
with him; he allowed no one under his command to be idle; he issued orders to press all the blacksmiths and mechanics in the
country for a hundred miles around; the barge of iron was raised; officers were dispatched with all haste to hurry forward
guns, carriages, ammunition, etc., and all workmen were obliged to live on board a transport steamer alongside the Arkansas,
work was continued day and night; the sound of the artisan's hammer did not cease until the ship was ready for battle.
A few days after Lieutenant Brown took charge of the Arkansas I arrived in Yazoo City and reported
to him for duty. He directed me to load a steamer with cotton and go down to Liverpool landing
and protect the gunboats Polk and Livingston with cotton bales, to moor their head down stream, to keep steam
up, and be prepared to ram any boats of the enemy that might venture in. Lieutenant Brown went down with me, but when we got
there Commander Pinkney informed us that he had changed his mind, and would not leave until the arrival of Commodore Lynch,
who was on his way to the command of all the naval forces of the West. Having placed the cotton as directed, I returned with
Captain Brown to Yazoo City.
A day or two afterwards Commodore Lynch arrived. Captain Brown had orders to obey all orders from General Van Dorn, and to
make no move without the sanction of that officer. Commodore Lynch, having inspected the Arkansas, ordered me to Jackson,
Mississippi, to telegraph the Secretary of War as follows: "The Arkansas is very inferior to the Merrimac in
every particular; the iron with which she is covered is worn and indifferent, taken from a railroad track, and is poorly secured
to the vessel; boiler iron on stern and counter; her smokestack is sheet iron." When I returned to Yazoo
City the Arkansas
was ready for service. Her battery consisted of ten guns -- viz: two 8 inch columbiads in the two forward or bow ports, two
9 inch Dalhgren shell guns, two 6 inch rifles, and two 32 pounders smooth bores in broadside, and two 6 inch rifles astern.
Her engines were new, having been built at Memphis, and on
the trial trip worked well. As the ship had two propellers and separate engines, she could be worked or handled conveniently.
The boilers were in the hold and below the water line. The speed was fair -- say nine knots. We had a full complement of officers
and about two hundred men. All were anxious for the time to come when we could show the enemy that he could not lay idly in
our waters. We started down the river the day the work was finished. On our way down we received intelligence that a small
steamer of the enemy was some miles below the rafts and batteries. So we hurried on down, firing a gun now and then to let
Pinkney and the batteries know we were coming. On rounding the point above the obstructions or rafts, we could see the men
at the guns on the bluffs, but as they had not fired we were satisfied that the enemy was not yet in range. Our attention
was soon attracted to the gunboats "Polk" and "Livingston," moored just below the obstructions. Smoke was seen issuing from
their cabins and hatches. Captain Brown promptly ordered all our small boats manned, and sent them to extinguish the fire;
but they got alongside the boats too late, as Pinkney had done his cowardly work too well. We soon ascertained that a small
sternwheel, high pressure, river steamboat, protected with hay, had approached nearly as far as Sartarsia, or about five miles
off the batteries, when, perceiving our fortifications, had quickly retreated. The two gunboats fired and abandoned by Pinkney,
being full of cotton, burned rapidly; and the lines by which they had been fastened to the banks being consumed, the boats
drifted down the river. One of them getting foul of the ironclad ram Van Dorn set her on fire, and she too was added
to the loss of the Polk and Livingston.
The following day I was
sent with one of the pilots to sound the bar at Sartarsia. We found plenty of water for the Arkansas,
but the pilot stated that if the river continued to fall as it had been doing for several days, that in five more days there
would not be enough water for the Arkansas to get
down. The man who had placed the rafts said they could not be moved inside of a week. Captain Brown instructed Lieutenants
Grimball, Gift and myself to examine the obstructions, and report if it was practicable to remove them, so as to allow the
Arkansas to pass through; and if so, in what time
the work could be done. We visited the rafts, and after a careful examination reported that they could be removed in less
than half an hour.
A short time before this the large upriver fleet of the enemy
(now under command of Commodore Davis, United States Navy), which had fought its way from Columbus, Kentucky, had arrived
above Vicksburg, and had been joined by the victorious fleet of seagoing ships under the indomitable Farragut. The mortar
fleets above and below Vicksburg were thundering away at that
stronghold, and a large land force were ready to act in concert with the enemy's overwhelming armada.
Captain Brown, the commander of the Arkansas, while
being very anxious to comply with the unanimous wish of his officers and men to attack the enemy was of the opinion that the
ship should remain above the obstruction strictly on the defensive. He said that there were a large number of fine steamers
in the Yazoo, and the valley of that river was capable of furnishing an immense amount of supplies to our armies, and that
the river and valley could be held by the Arkansas and proper batteries; that if the Arkansas went down and
attacked the combined fleets of the enemy, it would be impossible to destroy them or even to cripple them seriously. But if
the Government or General Van Dorn desired it, he (Captain Brown) would willingly go down and do his best. Captain Brown decided
therefore to consult with General Van Dorn without delay; so I was directed to go to Vicksburg
and explain our position and Captain Brown's views, and ask for instructions. I was also to reconnoiter the position of the
enemy's fleets above Vicksburg. About sunset, July, 1862,
I left Liverpool landing, and set out on my mission, riding all night -- some fifty miles.
I was in Vicksburg about eight o'clock next morning. On entering
the town l was fortunate enough to come upon the headquarters of Colonel Withers, of the artillery, where I was hospitably
received, had a good breakfast, and went with the Colonel to call on General Van Dorn. The General thoroughly appreciated
the importance of holding the Yazoo river, but he thought that as the Arkansas
could only be used during the high water season, that she could not materially assist in defending the river. He thought that
the Arkansas could run by the gunboats above Vicksburg
and attack the Brooklyn and mortar schooners below town, or run by everything about Vicksburg
and destroy the small gunboats scattered along the lower river in detail, pass out of the Mississippi river and go to Mobile. He therefore ordered Captain Brown to move at once with his
steamer, and act as his judgment should dictate.
After leaving General Van Dorn's
headquarters I proceeded, in company with one of Colonel Withers' officers, up the bank of the river to reconnoiter. It was
late in the afternoon before we got up abreast with the fleets. The woods were so dense and entangled with vines and briers
that we were obliged to dismount and grope our way through the best we could. I had a good field glass, and watched the vessels
carefully some time. Farragut's fleet consisted of thirteen heavy sloops of war, mounting tremendous batteries, and were anchored
in line ahead near the east bank. I was satisfied that none of them had steam up. The fleet of Commodore Davis numbered over
thirty ironclads and six or eight rams. They were moored to the west bank, nearly opposite Farragut's fleet. Below Davis' fleet were about thirty mortar boats. Davis' vessels appeared to have steam up. While we were making our observations a man of
war cutter landed near us, but the crew did not suspect our presence. About dark that night I left Vicksburg and rode until two o'clock next morning, when, feeling much fatigued, I stopped
at a planter's house and rested until daylight. The following day I arrived at Liverpool
landing. The next morning a passage was made in the obstruction. The Arkansas
dropped through and below the bar at Sartarsia. Commodore Lynch now arrived from Yazoo
City and proposed to go down with us. When he informed Captain Brown
of his intentions, Brown remarked, "Well, Commodore, I will be glad if you go down with us, but as this vessel is too small
for two captains, if you go I will take charge of a gun and attend to that." Commodore Lynch replied, "Very well, Captain,
you may go; I will stay. May God bless you!" The good old Commodore then called all the officers around him, and said he knew
they would do their duty; and he hoped they would all go through the fight safely, and live to see our country free from her
invaders. He then bade us all goodbye and returned to the city.
The next morning,
July 14th, 1862, the Arkansas started down the river,
and arrived at Hames' Bluff just after dark, where we anchored until 2 A.M. next day, when getting under way the ship was
cleared for battle, and we steamed slowly down. Daylight found us seven or eight miles above the mouth of the river. The morning
was warm and perfectly calm; the dense volume of black smoke which issued from our funnel, rose high above the trees, and
we knew that the enemy would soon be on the lookout for us. Pretty soon we discovered smoke above the trees below, winding
along the course of the crooked Yazoo. The men of the Arkansas were now all at their
stations, the guns were loaded and cast loose, -- their tackles in the hands of willing seamen ready to train; primers in
the vents; locks thrown back and the lanyards in the hands of the gun captains; the decks sprinkled with sand and tourniquets
and bandages at hand; tubs filled with fresh water were between the guns, and down in the berth deck were the surgeons with
their bright instruments, stimulants and lint, while along the passageways stood rows of men to pass powder, shell and shot,
and all was quiet save the dull thump, thump, of the propellers. Steadily the little ship moved onward towards her enemies,
but she had not gone far, when about a mile below, a large ironclad mounting 13 heavy guns steamed slowly around a bend, and
was no doubt terribly astonished to see the Arkansas making for him, for he turned around as quickly as he could and
started down the river. Our two forward guns opened on him with solid shot. He replied with his three stern guns, his shot
passing over us, or striking harmlessly on our shield forward. Two wooden gunboats soon came up, and passing their fleeing
consort advanced boldly to meet us, but a few well directed shot made them turn tail and again pass their friend, who knew
what a tartar they had caught! Slowly but surely we gained on the ironclad, our shot raking him and making dreadful havoc
on his crowded decks. The wooden vessels ahead of her kept up a brisk fire with their rifle guns. One of their shot striking
our pilot houses drove in some fragments of iron, which mortally wounded both the Yazoo river
pilots, and slightly wounded Captain Brown in the head. As one of the pilots was being taken below, he said "keep in the middle
of the river." We had decreased our distance from the ironclad rapidly, and were only a hundred yards astern, our shot still
raking him, when he ceased firing and sheered into the bank; our engines were stopped, and ranging up alongside, with the
muzzles of our guns touching him, we poured in a broadside of solid shot, when his colors came down. As we had no pilot, Captain
Brown considered it unsafe to stop. So on we pushed, driving the two fleeing boats ahead of us, our speed decreasing all the
time, owing to shot holes in the smoke stack; but in a few minutes the Arkansas glided
out into the broad Mississippi, right into the midst of
the hostile fleet. The Yankee tars were soon at their guns and shot and shell came quick and fast upon our single little ship.
Enemies being on all sides of us, our guns were blazing destruction and defiance in every direction Soon three large rams
were seen rushing down the river towards us. The Arkansas turned and steamed up to meet them; the leading ram had got
within a hundred yards of us, when a well aimed shot, fired by the cool and intrepid Lieutenant Gift, from one of the bow
guns, struck the ram's boiler and blew him up. The other two rams, fearing a similar fate, turned and fled. Our steam was
now so low that we could maneuver with difficulty. Turning head down stream we made for Farragut's fleet and gave them the
best we had at close quarters; they replied briskly and seldom missed us; two of their eleven inch solid shot crushed through
our sides, doing fearful execution amongst our men Slowly we went, fighting our way right and left, until presently we had
passed our enemies, and were received with loud hurrahs from the Confederate soldiers on the heights of Vicksburg.
With much difficulty the Arkansas was rounded to
and secured to the bank in front of the city. The iron on her port side, though pierced but twice, had been so often struck
with heavy projectiles that it was very much loosened. A few more shots would have caused nearly all of it to have fallen
from the vessel. Our dead were sent on shore to be buried; the sick and wounded carried to the hospital; the decks were washed
down, and the crew went to breakfast. We were visited by Generals Van Dorn and Breckinridge, who complimented us highly and
offered us any assistance we required.
there was only one sloop of war -- the Brooklyn - - and Porter's mortar schooners
and a number of steam transports. As soon as the Arkansas had appeared in front of
Vicksburg one of the schooners was set on fire, and it was
apparent that the enemy was much alarmed. Had the Arkansas
been in a condition to have manoeuvred she could easily have captured or destroyed that entire flotilla. Our engineers went
to work at once to repair the smokestack, but it was late in the afternoon before it was in any kind of shape, and it was
then considered too late to make a move. Had not our gunboats in the Yazoo been uselessly destroyed by Pinkney, there can
be no doubt that Captain Brown could, with their assistance, have injured the enemy far more than he did with the Arkansas alone. The Polk and the Livingston had
been well protected with cotton; and the Van Dorn was an ironclad ram, had great speed, was easily handled, and had
resisted shot that could penetrate the sides of the Arkansas.
Had those three steamers been with the Arkansas,
the enemy's fire would not have been concentrated as it was on that vessel, and she could have fought to more advantage.
Just before dark the enemy's gunboats above Vicksburg were
observed to be in motion, and we had no doubt that Farragut meant to fight. After dark we noticed a range light on the opposite
bank abreast of us, evidently intended to point out our position. So we shifted our moorings a few hundred yards lower down.
A severe thunderstorm now came on, accompanied by torrents of rain. Shortly rapid and heavy firing was heard at the upper
batteries, and a signal came to us that the gunboats were passing down. We went to our guns, and in a minute were ready for
battle. And we had not long to wait, for a large sloop of war was observed moving slowly down near the bank, until he was
opposite the light on the other shore, when he delivered a broadside into the bank where the Arkansas had been laying
before dark. As soon as he had fired, our two bow guns told him where we were; and as he ranged up alongside of us our broadside
guns rattled their heavy shells through him; and when he passed, our two stern rifles turned him over to the lower batteries.
Soon another vessel came on as the first had done, and was served the same way. Another and another came, until fourteen had
passed. The Arkansas was struck only once, and that was a well directed shot (11 inch)
fired from the Richmond. It struck near the water line,
passed through the port side into the dispensary, on the berth deck opposite the engine room, mashed up all the drugs, etc.,
carried in an ugly lot of iron fragments and splinters, passed over the engine room, grazed the steam chimney, and lodged
in the opposite side of the ship. Several of the firemen and one of the pilots were killed and an engineer wounded.
The next morning (July 16th) at nine o'clock the enemy opened on us from all their mortar boats above and below town, throwing
their huge 13 inch shells thick and fast around us. As the mortar shells fell with terrible force almost perpendicularly,
and as the Arkansas was unprotected on upper decks,
boilers amidship, a magazine and shell room at each end, it was very evident that if she was struck by one of those heavy
shells, it would be the last of her. Her moorings were changed frequently to impair the enemy's range; but the enterprising
Yankees shelled us continually, their shell often exploding a few feet above decks and sending their fragments into the decks.
When the Arkansas started down the Yazoo her crew were seamen with the exception of
about fifty soldiers -- volunteers from a Mississippi regiment.
The seamen had been on the Yazoo swamps some time, and in consequence were troubled with
chills and fever. Many had been killed, a large number wounded, and a greater portion of the remainder sent to the hospital
on our arrival at Vicksburg. The day after we reached the
city the Missouri volunteers, who had agreed to serve only
for the trip, went on shore and joined their commands; so we were now very short handed. Captain Brown asked General Van Dorn
to fill up our complement from the army, which he readily assented to do, provided the men would volunteer, and make application
for transfer through proper channels. At first quite a number volunteered, but when they got on board and saw the shot holes
through the vessel's sides, and heard sailors' reports of the terrible effect of shell and splinters, and were made aware
of the danger of the mortar shell that fell continually around the ship, those volunteers found many pretexts to go back to
their commands; many took the "shell fever" and went to the hospital. As a general thing, soldiers are not much use on board
ship, particularly volunteers, who are not accustomed to the discipline and routine of a man of war. A scene that occurred
on board the Arkansas one day at Vicksburg
is illustrative. We were engaged hauling the ship into a position near one of our batteries; but having but few sailors to
haul on the wharf we were progressing slowly, when Lieutenant Stevens, the executive officer, came on deck, and perceiving
a crowd of volunteers sitting on deck playing cards, he said, rather sharply, "Come, volunteers, that won't do; get up from
there and give us a pull." One of the players looked up at Lieutenant Stevens and replied, "Oh! hell we aint no deck hands;"
and eyeing the man sitting opposite to him, was heard to say, "I go you two better!"
Both of our surgeons being sick, Captain Brown telegraphed out into the interior of Mississippi
for medical volunteers. In a day or two a long, slim doctor came in from Clinton;
and as he was well recommended, Captain Brown gave him an acting appointment as surgeon, and directed him to report to lieutenant
Stevens for duty. It was early in the morning when he arrived; the enemy had not commenced the daily pastime of shelling us;
the ship's decks had been cleanly washed down, the awnings spread, and everything was neat and orderly. The doctor took breakfast
in the ward room, and seemed delighted with the vessel generally. Before the regular call to morning inspection the officer
of the powder division started around below to show the new medical officer his station during action, and the arrangement
for disposing of the wounded, etc., etc. In going along the berth deck the officer remarked to the doctor that in a battle
there was plenty to do, as the wounded came down in a steady stream. The "medico" looked a little incredulous; but a few minutes
afterwards, when he perceived the road through which an 11 inch shell had come, his face lengthened perceptibly; and after
awhile, when the big shells began to fall around the vessel, he became rather nervous. He would stand on the companion ladder
and watch the smoke rise from the mortar vessels, and would wait until he heard the whizzing of the shell through the airs
when he would make a dive for his stateroom. As soon as the shell fell he would go up and watch out for another. Occasionally,
when a shell would explode close to us, or fall with a heavy splash alongside, he would be heard to groan, "Oh! Louisa and
At daylight on the 22d of July, 1862, the ironclad fleet above Vicksburg dropped down and commenced firing rapidly at our upper batteries.
Farragut's fleet engaged the lower batteries, and the mortar fleets opened upon the city and forts. The Arkansas was cleared for battle, but when the crew were mustered only 41 men answered
to their names on the gun deck. The cannonading was tremendous, and fairly shook the earth. In about half an hour after the
firing had begun, a large ironclad, the Essex, emerged from the smoke above and made directly for the Arkansas. When he was fifty yards from us our two bow guns were discharged
at him, but on he came, and running against us fired a ten inch solid shot into our larboard forward port; the shot ranging
aft swept 20 men, more than half the force on the gun deck. The iron clad swung alongside of us, when we gave him our port
broadside with guns depressed -- which apparently disabled him, for he ceased firing and drifted down the river. We had not
reloaded our guns when a large ram was discovered steaming at full speed for us. The Arkansas
was headed for him, and the vessels collided with an awful crash, broadside to broadside. The ram passed around the stern
of the Arkansas and ran into the bank under the batteries.
Had our stern guns been loaded then we could have destroyed the ram, as his bows were entirely out of the water, and he was
but a short distance from us. The ram kept backing hard, and soon got afloat. Another ram now came down, but a broadside from
the Arkansas disabled him, and his consort took him in tow,
and succeeded in getting him up the river out of the range. The gunboats then withdrew from action, and the firing ceased
on both sides.
On the afternoon of July 24th, 1862, all of the enemy's vessels,
above and below, were seen to be under way. We got ready, expecting a general attack; but were agreeably disappointed, for
they all steamed away and abandoned the siege.
Though a great many shell had
been thrown into Vicksburg very little damage had been done.
The citizens began to return, and business to some extent was resumed.
of Mechanics came from Jackson and Mobile and went to work repairing
the injuries the Arkansas had received. The old pilot
house was taken off, and a new one was to be made. Captain Brown being in bad health, took a few days leave of absence, leaving
Lieutenant Stevens in command.
Major General John C. Breckinridge now proposed
an expedition, and wished the Arkansas to cooperate.
It was known that the enemy had several thousand men at Baton Rouge, and that the ironclad
Essex and a small wooden gunboat was all the force afloat. It was proposed that General
Breckinridge should move with his division by rail to Tangipahoa, a station on the New Orleans
and Jackson railroad, thirty miles from Baton Rouge,
and make a forced night march to that place, which he would attack at daylight. The Arkansas
was to attack the gunboats simultaneously. Lieutenant Stevens did not like to move with the Arkansas while Captain Brown was absent, and he preferred that General Breckinridge
would wait until the repairs were completed and until Captain Brown should return. But General Breckinridge was anxious for
the vessel to go without delay. As no Confederate could refuse to comply with the wish of one so universally loved and respected
as General Breckinridge, Lieutenant Stevens consented to go, and at once began getting the ship ready. A full complement of
men was obtained and organized, and at two A.M., August 4th, we started down the river. The Arkansas behaved well, and made with the current about fifteen miles an hour. We
steamed on down during all the next day, passing many signs of the wanton and barbarous destruction of property by the enemy.
The people on the river banks gathered around the burnt and charred remains of their once happy homes, and hailed with exclamations
of delight the sight of their country's flag, and the gallant little Arkansas moving down to chastise the savage foe.
The next morning at one o'clock, being about fifteen miles below Port Hudson, the engines suddenly stopped. I was officer
of the deck at the time, and learning from the engineer that he could not go ahead for some time, I rounded the vessel to,
and let go the anchor. All of the engineers were called and started to work to get the machinery in order. Each engineer had
a different idea of what should be done. On the Yazoo, and until the Arkansas arrived at Vicksburg, we had a chief
engineer who was a thorough mechanic and engineer, but at Vicksburg he was taken with the fever, and was at the hospital unable
for duty when the steamer started for Baton Rouge. All of the other engineers were incompetent to run such engines as those
of the Arkansas, but they were the only ones
to be had there at that time. They were mostly engineers who had served their time with the simple high pressure engines of
the Mississippi river boats; a few were navy engineers who had been in the service but a year or two, and had no practical
experience. But they were all true good men, and no doubt did their best.
daylight we were under way again, and proceeded on our way down. We could hear the guns of Breckinridge, and we had hopes
of being able to reach Baton Rouge in time to be of service.
As we were steaming rapidly down the river, around the point above Baton Rouge, our crew at quarters, and the sound of the
conflict on shore cheering our anxious men, the starboard engine stopped; the port engine continuing to go ahead at full speed,
turned the vessel quickly towards the bank, when, an eddy catching her bow and the swift current sweeping her stern down stream,
she was irresistibly shoved ashore, where she wedged herself amongst the cypress stumps hard and fast. The engineers went
to work to repair damages. An anchor was run out into the stream, and every exertion made to get the vessel afloat. In the
afternoon a messenger arrived on board from General Breckinridge, saying that the enemy had been driven through the town,
and that they were on the river bank protected by the gunboats; that if we could get down by next morning at daylight, General
Breckinridge would attack again, and would probably bag the whole party of Yankees. About sunset the Arkansas was afloat and the engines reported in order. Lieutenant Stevens decided
to go up about two miles and take in coal, until it was time to start down.
In going into the landing at the coal pile, one of the engines gave way again and the vessel grounded, but was soon got afloat,
and in an hour or two was again reported all right. At 3 A.M. next day we got under way and proceeded down the river, and
arriving near the point, something broke about the machinery, and we were obliged to stop. The steamer was secured to the
bank. Lieutenant Stevens now thought that the engines could not be depended upon, and determined to get the vessel in a good
position for defence, and to hold on as long as possible, or until good engineers could be obtained, and the engines put in
proper order. Accordingly the vessel was hauled, stern in, to a gap in the bank and secured. She thus presented her strongest
points to the river.
About seven o'clock that morning, several gunboats were
seen coming up from Baton Rouge, but they approached the Arkansas
cautiously, for though they were aware of her being disabled they knew how hard she could hit. The ironclad Essex
came up within a quarter of a mile of us, and opened fire with his three bow guns. The senior engineer now came on deck, and
reported in a loud voice: "The engines are in good order, sir." The crew cheered; Lieut. Stevens gave the order to let go
the lines; the engines started ahead slow, and the little ship moved out into the stream. The bell was struck to go ahead
at "full speed," when the port engine went ahead fast and the starboard engine stopped. The vessel went into the bank on top
of the stumps, with her stern towards the enemy. The stern guns being in my division, I opened as soon as they bore, and had
fired a few rounds, when I was ordered by Lieut. Stevens to take my men on shore with their small arms. The steamer was set
on fire, and soon blew up. The stern of the Arkansas had
only boiler iron to protect it, and as any shot striking there could not fail to penetrate the magazines or boilers, Mr. Stevens
thought it useless to run the risk of having his entire crew blown up. A truer friend to the South, a cooler or braver man
than Lieutenant Stevens never lived, though there were not wanting newspaper editors and other bombproof critics to defame
him as a coward and traitor.
The crew of the Arkansas
proceeded to Jackson, Mississippi,
where we were soon joined by our men who had recovered from the swamp fever and slight wounds; so that we then mustered 400
strong. Captain Brown having returned from leave, took command of us, and shortly afterwards we were ordered to Port Hudson.
When we arrived at that place, we found four twenty four pound siege guns (rifled), and one 42 pounder, smooth bore. We manned
those guns and kept a sharp lookout for our old friend, the Essex, and a small gunboat
that had gone on a pirating expedition up the river.
On the night of September
7th, our lookout signaled that the Essex was coming down. We waited quietly at quarters
until the Essex and her consort alongside of her got close under the battery, when we opened fire; our men worked lively
and we pounded away in fine style. The Essex, after getting at "long taw," fired a
few wild shots and passed on down.
Large working parties soon arrived at Port
Hudson, and commenced to throw up batteries all along the bluffs, and to construct field works in the rear. Some cavalry,
light artillery, and a regiment of heavy artillerymen, arrived under command of General Beal, who took charge of us all.
About a week afterwards I was ordered by General Beal to proceed to Atlanta,
Georgia, and attend to forwarding ordnance stores. When I had
got as far as Jackson, Mississippi,
I was taken with the fever, and had to lay by. I telegraphed my orders to Lieutenant McCorkle, and then went out to Raymond
to get well. In a few days I received a letter from Captain Brown, saying that his command had been ordered to Yazoo City, and for
me to join him there as soon as I was able to travel. On my way to take the train, I received a dispatch from Lieutenant Commanding
John N. Maffitt, at Mobile, stating that I had been ordered to the steamer Florida, and to hurry on and join her. Being perfectly delighted with the prospect of getting
to sea, I lost no time in reporting on board that ship.
C. W. READ, New
FROM CAPTAIN WILLIAM L. RITTER.
To: Rev. John William Jones,
Secretary Southern Historical Society, Richmond,
Dear Sir -- The February
number of the Southern Historical Society Papers contains an article from Major J. L. Brent in relation to the capture of
the ironclad Indianola, in which mention is made of the name of Sergeant Edward H. Langley, of the Third Maryland Artillery,
who had immediate charge of the two Parrot guns aboard the Queen of the West. As Sergeant Langley belonged to the battery
of which I was a member, I desire to relate a few incidents connected with the closing scenes of his life, and to mention
the fate of his successor, Lieutenant William Thompson Patten.
When the two
gun detachments were put aboard the steamer Archer, January 23d, 1863, and sent down the river in charge of Sergeant
Langley, there was but one commissioned officer with the battery in Vicksburg, the others having
not yet arrived from Tennessee.
On the 26th the steamer De Soto, a ferryboat, was captured by the enemy at Johnson's
Landing, a few miles below Vicksburg, on the west side of
the river, where the Captain had stopped the boat to take on some wood. February 2d the Queen of the West passed by
the batteries at Vicksburg and steamed down the river. On
the 4th she returned to Johnson's Landing, where she remained a few days; and then, in company with the De
Soto, proceeded down the Mississippi and up Red
river to Fort De Russey, where she was captured by our forces. As soon as the Queen was repaired, Sergeant
Langley's two gun detachments were transferred from the Archer to the Queen.
A correspondent, in speaking of the fight with the Indianola, says: "In closing this article, we cannot refrain mentioning
specially the conduct of Sergeant E. H. Langley, one of the Third Maryland Artillery. He had on the Queen two detachments
of his artillery, and was placed in charge of the two Parrot guns. He himself took command of the 86 pounder gun on the bow
of the Queen, where he remained during the action, neither he or his gallant comrades ever leaving their posts for
a moment. While the bow of the Queen was still resting against the side of the Indianola he still manned and
fired his guns, though he and his men were without the least covering or protection. In addition to this courage, the skill
and judgment he showed in maneuvering his piece mounted on wheels, within a most contracted space, is certainly deserving
of the very highest commendation."
The 1st of March, 1863, Lieutenant Patten,
of the Third Maryland Artillery was ordered to Shreveport, Louisiana, to take command of the section which up to this time had been so efficiently
commanded by Sergeant Langley.
Early on the morning of the 14th of April, 1863,
Captain A. E. Fuller, now in command of the Queen, with the Lizzie Simmons as a supply boat, attacked the enemy's
fleet on Grand Lake, Louisiana, consisting of the Calhoun, Estrella and Arizona, but before the vessels
came within short range, an incendiary percussion shell from the Calhoun penetrated the deck of the Queen, exploded
and set the vessel on fire. About twenty minutes afterward the fire reached the magazine, and the career of this celebrated
boat was closed. After discovering the boat to be on fire, Lieutenant Patten rolled a cotton bale off the side of the vessel
and jumped upon it, but it turned with him and he sank, not being able to swim. -- Thus perished one of the noblest and bravest
of the Marylanders who went South. He was a man of commanding physique, polished manners, and rare attainments, a soldier
who reflected credit upon the cause he espoused; and in his death the battery sustained an irreparable loss, and the service
a gallant, brave and faithful officer.
Sergeant Langley and all but four of
his men remained upon the Queen, and were lost in the general destruction of the vessel. Captain Fuller jumped off
the Queen and was picked up by the men of one of the enemy's boats. The Lizzie Simmons escaped capture.
Yours, very respectfully,
WM. L. RITTER.
Baltimore, Maryland, April 24, 1876.
Source: Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. I. Richmond, Virginia,
May, 1876. No. 5.
Reading: Last Flag Down: The Epic Journey of the Last Confederate Warship. From Publishers Weekly: Thriller writer Baldwin (The Eleventh Plague et al.) joins forces
with the prolific Powers (coauthor of Flags of Our Fathers et al.) to come up with a fast-reading Civil War true adventure
saga centered a on young CSA navy lieutenant. The 24-year-old Conway Whittle, an ancestor of Baldwin's,
was assigned as first lieutenant and executive officer on the Confederate raider Shenandoah late in the war. The ship sailed
from London disguised as a merchant vessel and underwent a
memorable cruise round the globe, attacking and destroying Yankee merchant ships and whalers. Continued below...
Whittle and company kept up their daring sea raids until August of 1865, when they learned that the war
had ended five months earlier. The ship returned to England, having flown the last Confederate
flag at sea in defiance of the U.S. Baldwin and Powers recount their tale in a lively, evocative style and may be forgiven
for being overly fond of their hero. Whittle, they say, "was as good a man as history seems able to produce: a warrior of
courage inconceivable to most people; a naval officer of surpassing calm and intelligence; a seeker after Christian redemption;
a steadfast lover; a student of human nature; a gentle soul; a custodian of virtue."
Reading: Wolf of the Deep: Raphael Semmes and the Notorious Confederate Raider CSS Alabama
(Hardcover). From Publishers Weekly: When you think of Confederate Civil War heroes, the names Lee, Jackson, Stuart and Longstreet,
among others, come to mind. Historian Fox (The Mirror Makers, et al.) makes a convincing case that Confederate Navy Capt.
Raphael Semmes should be added to that list, at least because of his brilliant seafaring skills. Fox's fact-filled, cleanly
written account of Semmes's life focuses on his amazing 22-month stint as captain of the most famous Confederate privateer,
the Alabama. Continued below...
Semmes's command, the Alabama
roamed the world's waterways for nearly two years, seizing or sinking nearly 70 Union merchant schooners, whalers and other
commercial ships to counteract the Yankee blockade of Southern ports, until June 1864, when the Alabama was sunk by the U.S.S. Kearsage. Born in 1809 into a slave-owning, tobacco-farming
family in southern Maryland, Semmes was orphaned at an early age, grew up in Washington, D.C. and joined the U.S. Navy at 17, remaining
a staunch Southern partisan who espoused racist views and strongly believed in slavery. After serving without any particular
distinction for 35 years, he made his mark with the Confederate navy. This well-conceived and executed military biography
will have extra appeal for those who are familiar with nautical terms.
Reading: A History of the Confederate Navy
(Hardcover). From Publishers Weekly: One of the most prominent European scholars of the Civil War weighs in with a provocative
revisionist study of the Confederacy's naval policies. For 27 years, University of Genoa history professor Luraghi (The Rise
and Fall of the Plantation South) explored archival and monographic sources on both sides of the Atlantic to develop a convincing
argument that the deadliest maritime threat to the South was not, as commonly thought, the Union's blockade but the North's
amphibious and river operations. Confederate Navy Secretary Stephen Mallory, the author shows, thus focused on protecting
the Confederacy's inland waterways and controlling the harbors vital for military imports. Continued below…
As a result,
to Savannah to Richmond, major
Confederate ports ultimately were captured from the land and not from the sea, despite the North's overwhelming naval strength.
Luraghi highlights the South's ingenuity in inventing and employing new technologies: the ironclad, the submarine, the torpedo.
He establishes, however, that these innovations were the brainchildren of only a few men, whose work, although brilliant,
couldn't match the resources and might of a major industrial power like the Union. Nor did
the Confederate Navy, weakened through Mallory's administrative inefficiency, compensate with an effective command system.
Enhanced by a translation that retains the verve of the original, Luraghi's study is a notable addition to Civil War maritime
history. Includes numerous photos.
Reading: Ironclad Down: USS Merrimack-CSS Virginia from Design to Destruction (Hardcover). Description: The result of more than fifteen years
of research, Ironclad Down is a treasure trove of detailed information about one of history s most famous vessels. Describing
the fascinating people--Stephen Russell Mallory, John Mercer Brooke, John Luke Porter, et al.--who conceived, designed and
built one of the world's first ironclads as well as describing the ship itself, Carl Park offers both the most thoroughly
detailed, in-depth analysis to date of the actual architecture of the Virginia
and a fascinating, colorful chapter of Civil War history.
Reading: The Confederate Navy
in Europe. Description: The Confederate Navy in Europe is an account
of the Confederate officers and officials who went on missions to Britain
and France to buy ships for the CS Navy,
and to support CSN operations on the high seas, such as commerce raiding. Spencer tells the story of how some officers rose
to the occasion (some did not) and did a lot with limited resources. The majority of the ships ordered never reached America. Shipbuilding takes time, and as the war dragged on
the European powers were persuaded by Confederate battlefield misfortunes and US
diplomatic pressure that it was most expedient to deny the sales of such innovative designs as ocean-going ironclads. Like
other out-manned and out-gunned powers, the CSA did have to resort to ingenuity and innovation.
Reading: The Rebel Raiders: The Astonishing History of the Confederacy's Secret Navy (American Civil War). From Booklist: DeKay's modest monograph pulls together four
separate stories from the naval aspects of the American Civil War. All have been told before but never integrated as they
are here. The first story is that of James Bulloch, the Confederate agent who carefully and capably set out to have Confederate
commerce raiders built in neutral England.
The second is that of the anti-American attitudes of British politicians, far more extreme than conventional
histories let on, and U.S. Ambassador Charles Francis Adams' heroic fight against them. The third is a thoroughly readable
narrative of the raider Alabama and her capable, quirky captain, Raphael Semmes. The final story is about the Alabama claims--suits for damages done to the U.S.
merchant marine by Confederate raiders, which became the first successful case of international arbitration. Sound and remarkably
free of fury, DeKay's commendable effort nicely expands coverage of the naval aspects of the Civil War.
Reading: Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running During the Civil War (Studies in Maritime History Series). From Library Journal: From the profusion of books
about Confederate blockade running, this one will stand out for a long time as the most complete and exhaustively researched.
Though not unaware of the romantic aspects of his subject, Wise sets out to provide a detailed study, giving particular attention
to the blockade runners' effects on the Confederate war effort. It was, he finds, tapping hitherto unused sources, absolutely
essential, affording the South a virtual lifeline of military necessities until the war's last days. This book covers it all:
from cargoes to ship outfitting, from individuals and companies to financing at both ends. An indispensable addition to Civil
Reading: Gray Raiders of the Sea: How Eight Confederate Warships Destroyed the Union's High
Seas Commerce. Reader’s Review:
This subject is one of the most fascinating in the history of sea power, and the general public has needed a reliable single-volume
reference on it for some time. The story of the eight Confederate privateers and their attempt to bring Union trade to a halt
seems to break every rule of common sense. How could so few be so successful against so many? The United
States, after Great Britain,
had the most valuable and extensive import/export trade in the world by the middle of the 19th century. The British themselves
were worried since they were in danger of being surpassed in the same manner that their own sea traders had surpassed the
Dutch early in the 18th century. Continued below…
From its founding
in 1861, the Confederate States of America realized it had a huge problem since it lacked a navy.
It also saw that it couldn't build one, especially after the fall of its biggest port, New
Orleans, in 1862. The vast majority of shipbuilders and men with maritime skills lived north of the
Mason-Dixon Line, in the United States, and mostly in New
England. This put an incredible burden on the Confederate Secretary of the Navy, Stephen R. Mallory. When he saw
that most of the enemy navy was being used to blockade the thousands of miles of Confederate coasts, however, he saw an opportunity
for the use of privateers. Mallory sent Archibald Bulloch, a Georgian and the future maternal grandfather of Theodore Roosevelt,
to England to purchase British-made vessels
that the Confederacy could send out to prey on Union merchant ships. Bulloch's long experience with the sea enabled him to
buy good ships, including the vessels that became the most feared of the Confederate privateers - the Alabama,
the Florida, and the Shenandoah. Matthew Fontaine Maury
added the British-built Georgia, and the Confederacy itself launched the
Sumter, the Nashville, the Tallahassee,
and the Chickamauga - though these were generally not as effective
commerce raiders as the first four. This popular history details the history of the eight vessels in question, and gives detailed
biographical information on their captains, officers, and crews. The author relates the careers of Raphael Semmes, John Newland
Maffitt, Charles Manigault Morris, James Iredell Waddell, Charles W. Read, and others with great enthusiasm. "Gray Raiders"
is a great basic introduction to the privateers of the Confederacy. More than eighty black and white illustrations help the
reader to visualize their dramatic exploits, and an appendix lists all the captured vessels. I highly recommend it to everyone
interested in the Confederacy, and also to all naval and military history lovers.