Revolution; Independence; Republic of Texas; Annexation; Statehood
|Texas Timeline Map
June 26 – The first bloodshed of the Texas Revolution takes place
at Velasco when Texans, transporting a cannon from Brazoria to Anahuac, are challenged by Mexican forces at Velasco. The Mexicans surrender on June 29.
Oct. 2 – Mexican troops attempt to retrieve a cannon that had
been given to Gonzales colonists for protection from Indian attack. The skirmish that ensues as Gonzales residents dare the
Mexicans to "come and take it" is considered the opening battle of the Texas Revolution.
Oct. 10 – Gail Borden begins publishing the newspaper "Telegraph
and Texas Register" at San Felipe de Austin.
Nov. 1 – A "consultation" convenes at San Felipe; on Nov. 7 the
delegates agree to establish a provisional government.
Nov. 24 – The Texas Rangers organization is officially established
by Texas' provisional government. Although Stephen F. Austin
had hired 10 frontiersmen as "rangers" to help protect his colonists against Indian raids in 1823, not until 1835 was the
law-enforcement group formally organized.
March 2 – The Texas Declaration of Independence is adopted at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
March 6 – A 13-day siege of the Alamo by Mexican troops led by
Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna ends on this day with a battle in which all remaining defenders are killed.
March 10 – Sam Houston abandons Gonzales and retreats eastward to
avoid the advancing Mexican army. Panicky settlers in the area flee as well in an exodus called the Runaway Scrape.
March 27 – About 350 Texan prisoners, including their commander
James Fannin, are executed at Goliad by order of Santa Anna. An estimated 30 Texans escape.
April 21 – In a battle starting about 4:30 p.m. and lasting 18 minutes,
Texan troops led by Sam Houston defeat the Mexican army commanded by Santa Anna at San Jacinto near present-day Houston. Houston
reports that 630 Mexican troops were killed and 730 were taken prisoner. Of the Texas
troops, nine of a force of 910 were killed or mortally wounded, and 30 were less seriously wounded.
May 14 – Santa Anna and Texas'
provisional president David Burnet sign two Treaties of Velasco – one public, the other secret – ending the Texas
Revolution. The treaties were, however, violated by both sides. Texas' independence was not
recognized by Mexico and Texas'
boundary was not determined until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War, was signed in 1848.
Sept. 5 – Voters of the new republic choose their first elected
officials: Sam Houston becomes president and Lorenzo de Zavala, vice president. The voters also overwhelmingly approve a referendum
requesting annexation by the United States.
U.S. President Martin Van Buren refuses to consider it, however, citing fear of war with Mexico and constitutional scruples.
|Republic of Texas Map
|Map of the Republic of Texas
Oct. – The first Congress of the Republic of Texas
convenes at Columbia.
of Texas is officially recognized by the United States,
and later by France, England,
the Netherlands and Belgium.
Aug. 1 – The first sale of town lots in the new capital of the
Republic, which is named for Stephen F. Austin, is held.
March 19 – Comanches, led by a dozen chiefs, meet with officials
of Texas government to negotiate a peace treaty. Believing
the Comanches to have reneged on a promise to release all white prisoners, the Texans take the chiefs prisoner. During the
Council House fight that follows, 35 Comanches are killed, as are seven Texans.
Aug. 5 – Near Hallettsville, a large band of Comanches, in retaliation
for the Council House Fight, begin killing and looting their way across Central Texas. Texas
Rangers and a volunteer army defeat the Comanches on Aug. 11 at Plum Creek near Lockhart.
June 20 – The Santa Fé Expedition, launched without Texas Congressional authorization by Pres. Mirabeau B. Lamar, leaves Central Texas on its way west to
establish trade with and solidify Texas' claims to territory
around Santa Fé. Members of group are taken prisoner by Mexican troops, marched to Mexico
City and imprisoned. They are finally released in 1842.
The first seeds of large-scale
German immigration to Texas are sown when a German society, the Adelsverein, purchases land
for settlements in Central Texas.
March 1 – U.S. Congress passes a "Joint Resolution for Annexing
Texas to the United States."
mid-March – The first of many large groups of Germans arrive in Central
Texas, settling at New Braunfels.
July 4 – The Texas Constitutional Convention votes to accept the
United States annexation proposal; it drafts an Annexation Ordinance and
State Constitution to submit to the voters of Texas.
Oct. 13 – Texas
voters overwhelmingly approve annexation, the new state constitution and the annexation ordinance.
Dec. 29 – The U.S. Congress approves, and President James K. Polk
signs, the "Joint Resolution for the Admission of the State of Texas into the Union." Texas becomes the 28th state.
Feb. 19 – Although Texas
officially became a state on Dec. 29, 1845, the formal transfer of government does not take place until this date.
May 8 – The Battle of Palo Alto near Brownsville is the first major battle of the two-year Mexican War.
Feb. 2 – The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the
War with Mexico and specifying the location
of the international boundary.
Feb. 11 – The first railroad to actually begin operation in Texas is chartered by the state government. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos
and Colorado begins operation in 1853.
Nov. 25 – Texas' governor signs the Compromise of 1850, in which
Texas gives up its claim to land that includes more than half of what is now New Mexico, about a third of Colorado, a corner
of Kansas, the Oklahoma Panhandle, and a small portion of Wyoming in exchange for the United States' assumption of $10 million
in debt; Texas keeps its public lands.
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