BURNSIDE'S NORTH CAROLINA EXPEDITION: CIVIL WAR HISTORY
THE BURNSIDE EXPEDITION.*
BY AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE, MAJOR-GENERAL, U. S. A.
|General Ambrose Everett Burnside
|Ambrose Burnside (Mathew Brady, ca. 1862)
SOON after the 1st
Rhode Island regiment was mustered out of service, I was
appointed by President Lincoln to the office of brigadier-general. My commission was given to me on the 6th of August, 1861,
and I was ordered to report to General McClellan, who placed me in charge of the division and brigades which were formed of
the new troops as they arrived in Washington. My duty was
to look after the drill and discipline of these brigades, with a view to giving the men the efficiency necessary for assignment
to the older divisions of the army, which were then organizing in Washington under the name
of the Army of the Potomac. The duty was interesting in some respects, but was in the main
somewhat tame, so that I very naturally desired more active duty.
One evening in the
following October, General McClellan and I were chatting together over the affairs of the war, when I mentioned to him a plan
for the formation of a coast division to which I had given some thought. After giving him a somewhat detailed account of the
plan, he asked me to put it in writing as soon as possible, which was done. The next day it was presented to him, and it met
his approval. He laid it before the Secretary of War, by whom it was also approved. The general details of the plan were briefly
as follows: To organize a division of from 12,000 to 15,000 men, mainly from States bordering on the Northern sea-coast, many
of whom would be familiar with the coasting trade, and among whom would be found a goodly number of mechanics; and to fit
out a fleet of light-draught steamers, sailing vessels, and barges, large enough to transport the division, its armament and
supplies, so that it could be rapidly thrown from point on the coast with a view to establishing lodgments on the Southern
coast, landing troops, and penetrating into the interior, thereby threatening the lines of transportation in the rear of the
main army then
concentrating in Virginia,
and holding possession of the inland waters on the Atlantic coast.
paper was read by General Burnside before the Soldiers' and Sailors' Historical Society of Rhode Island, July 7th, 1880, and
is included here by permission of the Society, the text being somewhat abridged to conform to the plan of this work.-EDITORS.
After the approval
of the plan, I was ordered to New York to fit out the fleet; and on the 23d of October orders
were issued establishing my headquarters for the concentration of the troops of the division at Annapolis. Troops arrived from time to time at Annapolis,
and all went well in the camp, which was established on beautiful grounds just outside the town. The improvement in drill
and discipline was very rapid, but affairs did not progress so smoothly at the headquarters in New York. There was great difficulty in procuring vessels of a light draught, almost everything
of that sort having already been called into service; but after much difficulty I was enabled to report to General McClellan
on the 1st of December that a sufficient amount of transportation and armament had been secured for the division. It was a
motley fleet. North River barges and propellers had been strengthened from deck to keelson
by heavy oak planks, and water-tight compartments had been built in them; they were so arranged that parapets of sand-bags
or bales of hay could be built upon their decks, and each one carried from four to six guns. Sailing vessels, formerly belonging
to the coasting trade, had been fitted up in the same manner. Several large passenger steamers, which were guaranteed to draw
less than eight feet of water, together with tug and ferry boats, served to make up the fleet, which gave a capacity to transport
15,000 troops, with baggage, camp-equipage, rations, etc. Light-draught sailing vessels were also added to the fleet, on which
were stored building material for bridges, rafts, scows, intrenching implements, quartermaster's stores, tools, extra ordnance
stores, etc. All of these vessels were ordered to rendezvous at Fort
Monroe. Coal and water vessel were chartered in Baltimore, and ordered to rendezvous at the same place. The transports were ordered to Annapolis
Harbor, at which point, after some mortifying and vexations delays, they all arrived by the 4th of January, 1862, and on this
day were promulgated the orders for embarkation, which were received with most enthusiastic cheers from one end of the camp
to the other.
|North Carolina Burnside Expedition Map
|Burnside's Expedition Map
I had organized the
division into three brigades, which were placed in command of General J. F. Foster, General Jesse L. Reno, and General John
G. Parke, three of my most trusted friends. We had been cadets together at West
Point, and I had always entertained for them the greatest confidence and esteem. In all future operations in the
expedition, our close friendly relations were maintained, and I was never disappointed in any reliance which I placed on their
gallantry, skill, and integrity. I had been notified by General McClellan that our destination would be Hatteras Inlet, with
a view to operations in the inland waters of North Carolina.
On the 5th of January
the troops began to embark. During that day there were some delays, which resulted from inexperience in the manoeuvering of
the vessels and in the new work to which they were unaccustomed. On that night, snow to the depth of from two to three inches
fell, which gave to the camp and surrounding country, on the morning of the 6th, a most picturesque appearance. Regiment after
regiment struck their tents and marched to the point of embarkation, with bands playing, colors flying, and the men cheering
and singing from lightness of heart. As they passed through the quaint old town of Annapolis,
the lines of troops, with their dark uniforms and glittering bayonets, contrasted markedly with the snow-clad fields and trees.
The men were not cheered and encouraged by many friendly voices, such as they had heard whilst coming from their homes to
the seat of war; but they were not at all chilled by the reception, and cheerfully marched on to the work before them. Embarkation
had become more easy to each regiment than it was to the preceding one, owing to the greater facility with which the vessels
were handled. The order to break camp had been obeyed with joyful alacrity, and more troops poured into the Academy grounds
during the day than could be embarked, so that large numbers remained there for the night. This bivouac was one of the most
enlivening and beautiful that I saw during the war. There was very little sleep, but great joyousness. Wednesday morning every
regiment was on board except the 6th New Hampshire, which
arrived late on the night of the 7th, and was embarked on the next morning. The scene in the harbor was inspiring beyond description.
The vessels, as they passed each other from time to time, saluted with their steam-whistles, while the bands played and the
troops cheered, the decks being covered with blue-coats, some chattering, some sleeping, others writing their last letters
to their loved ones at home. The whole fleet seemed to be under a mixed influence of excitement and contentment.
On the morning of the
9th, each vessel set sail, under orders to rendezvous at Fort
Monroe, and there, by the night of the 10th, all had joined the Supply
and other vessels, making altogether a fleet of more than eighty. The harbor probably never presented a finer appearance than
on that night. All the vessels were illuminated, and the air was filled with the strains of martial music and the voices of
brave men. Not a man in the fleet knew his destination, except myself, the brigade commanders, and two or three staff-officers,
yet there was no complaint or inquisitiveness, but all seemed ready for whatever duty was before them.
Sealed orders were
given to the commanders of each vessel, to be opened at sea. Much discouragement was expressed by nautical men and by men
high in military authority as to the success of the expedition. The President and General McClellan were both approached,
and the President was frequently warned that the vessels were unfit for sea, and that the expedition would be a total failure.
Great anxiety was manifested to know its destination, but the secret had been well kept at Washington and at our headquarters. As Mr. Lincoln afterward told me, one public man was
very importunate, and, in fact, almost demanded that the President should tell him where we were going. Finally, the President
said to him, "Now, I will tell you in great confidence where they are going, if you will promise not to speak of it to any
one." The promise was given, and Mr. Lincoln said, "Well, now, my friend, the expedition is going to sea!" The inquirer manner
Mr. Lincoln was in the habit of throwing off the cares of states; and it often occurs to me that but for that habit he would
have broken down under the great weight of public responsibility which rested upon him from the first day of the war to the
termination of his noble life. In my opinion, no man has ever lived who could have gone through that struggle as he did. At
no period of his life, I believe, was his heart ever stirred with a feeling of enmity or resentment against any one. He was
ever stirred with a feeling of enmity or resentment against any one. He was actuated by the simple desire and determination
to maintain the authority of the Government at all hazards.
On the night of the
11th the signal for sailing was given, and very soon the fleet was under way. My headquarters were on board a large steamer,
the George Peabody; but, with two or three of my staff-officers, I took for my headquarters during the voyage a small propeller
called the Picket, in reality the smallest vessel in the fleet. I was moved to do this because of the great criticism which
had been made as to the unseaworthiness of the vessels of the fleet, and because of a desire to show my faith in their adaptability
to the service. Their weaknesses were known to me, but they were the best that could be procured, and it was necessary that
the service should be performed even at the risk of losing life by shipwreck. The weather was threatening, but I did not foresee
the storm by which we were afterward overtaken. At that time we had no weather signal reports; but, in any event, the sailing
would not have been delayed, because the orders to proceed to our work were imperative. It was, of course, learned by all,
after reaching the sea, that the destination of the fleet was Hatteras Inlet.
Just before midnight
the Picket weighed anchor, and we were soon at sea, and it was not long before the little vessel was called upon to test her
seagoing ability. On rounding Cape Hatteras
we met a very strong breeze, and the little vessel got into the trough of the sea. It seemed for a time as if she would surely
be swamped; but by skillful management the captain brought her head-to, after which she behaved better. We passed a most uncomfortable
night. Everything on the deck that was not lashed was swept overboard; and the men, furniture, and crockery below decks were
thrown about in a most promiscuous manner. The breeze died away toward morning, soon after which a heavy fog arose, which
continued the greater part of the day. The ocean's swell kept one in constant thought that the little vessels was in momentary
danger of going under. Toward night the wind arose, and within a short time it increased to a terrible gale, and we experienced
more discomfort and dread, if possible, than on the proceeding night. At times, it seemed as if the waves, which appeared
to us mountain high, would ingulf us, but then the little vessel would ride them and stagger forward in her course.
During the day before
(the 12th), the fag had hidden the fleet, but at about midnight we discovered a large steamer upon our port bow. We fired
a shot astern of her, which she answered by approaching us. It was the Eastern Queen; but we dared not go near her, for fear
of being crushed. She seemed to us enormous, and we were all delighted when she answered the signal to lay by us until daylight,
but to keep off. In the morning more vessels were found to be in sight, and just before noon of the 13th we hove to, off Hatteras
Inlet. Soon after, a tug-boat came out from the inlet, which, it will be remembered, had been occupied by General Butler and
Commodore Stringham. The little boat undertook to do the duty of piloting the fleet over the bar. The Picket led the
way, and bravely fought the breakers until she was safely anchored inside the harbor. Vessel after vessel followed us in,
until we were ready to wish that the fleet were not so large. At one time it seemed as if our little boat would be crushed
between two of the larger vessels which had dragged their anchors and were coming down upon her. Fortunately, the commanders
of the vessels succeeded in checking them just as they came in contact with us. Most of the fleet arrived inside the bar during
|Burnside Expedition Map
|Civil War Burnside North Carolina Expedition Map
The propeller City of New York, which was laden with supplies and ordnance stores, grounded
on the bar, and proved a total loss. He officers and crew clung to the rigging until the next day, when they were rescued
by surf-boats sent to their assistance. One of the troop-vessels also grounded on the bar, after nightfall, and it seemed
for a time as if she and her precious cargo would be lost. Some gallant volunteers went to her relief with a tug-boat, which
succeeded in getting her off the bar and into the harbor. The water and coal vessels did not approach the inlet, but went
to sea as a matter of safety. Such of the vessels as were of too heavy draught to pass over the bar anchored under the protection
of the cape. From one of these vessels, two officers, Colonel Joseph W. Allen and Surgeon Frederick A. Weller, of the 9th
New Jersey, started in a surf-boat to report to me. They
succeeded in reaching my headquarters, but on their return the boat was swamped by the breakers on the bar, and they were
lost.# The crew, who were more skilled in such service, clung to the boat and were rescued. Strange to say,
these were the only two of our force lost during the entire voyage and entrance into the inlet, notwithstanding the gloomy
prognostications touching the seaworthiness of the vessels of the fleet. Besides the propeller, we lost the ship Pocahontas,
with over a hundred horses on board. The gun-boat Zouave was sunk in the inlet after she crossed the bar, and proved a total
loss, but no lives were lost. From the 14th until the 26th we had terrific weather, and it required the utmost care on the
part of the commanders of the vessels to prevent a general disaster. Many of the vessels were driven from their anchors and
grounded on the swash and the bar. Many collisions occurred, which caused great damage to the fleet. At times it seemed as
if nothing could prevent general disaster. As I before said, the water and most of the coal vessels were driven to sea by
the stress of the weather, and the entire fleet was for many days on short rations of water. Much suffering resulted from
this, and at one time a flag of distress was hoisted on many of the vessels in consequence of the want of water. On one of
these dreary days I for a time gave up all hope, and walked to the blow of the vessel that I might be alone. Soon after, a
small back could appeared in the angry gray sky, just above the horizon, and very soon spread so as to cover the entire canopy,
and in a few moments a most copious fall of rain came to our relief. Signals were given to spread sails to catch the water,
and in a short time an abundance was secured for the entire fleet. I was at once cheered up, but was very much ashamed of
the distrust which I had allowed to get the mastery of me.
From time to time we
made efforts to cross the fleet from the inlet into Pamlico Sound, over what was called the
swash, which separated it from the inlet. We had been led to believe that there eight feet of water upon the swash, but when
we arrived we discovered to our sorrow that there were but six fee; and as most of our vessels, as well of the naval
loss of these officers occasioned profound gloom throughout New Jersey, and especially at
Trenton, where the colonel was widely known and esteemed.
Colonel Joseph W. Allen was born in Bristol, Pa.,
in 1811. He had been for many years a citizen of New Jersey,
residing at Bordentown. Educated as a civil engineer, he had executed with signal ability many important works, including
numerous railroad enterprises. He had been prominently identified with political affairs, and for six years had represented
his county in the State Senate. From the firing upon Fort Sumter
he gave all his thoughts and his time to the cause of the Union, at first in the position
of Deputy Quartermaster-General, where his energies were devoted to the forwarding of troops. When asked if he could look
at his family and still say, "Country first," he replied: "In these times every man must say, 'Country first,' and that for
the sake of his family." An evidence of the attachment and respect of his comrades is furnished in the monument erected to
his memory by the officers of his regiment two years after his death. Surgeon Weller was born at Paterson in 1817, and was a gentleman of great intelligence and private worth, and his death
was widely mourned.-Condensed from "Navy Jersey and the Rebellion," by John Y. Foster.
fleet which we found
at Hatteras Inlet on our arrival, drew more water than that, it was necessary to deepen the channel by some process. The current
upon the swash was very swift, a circumstance which proved to be much in our favor. Large vessels were sent ahead, under full
steam, on the bar when the tide was running out, and then anchors were carried out by boats in advance, so as to hold the
vessels in position. The swift current would wash the sand from under them and allow them to float, after which they were
driven farther on by steam and anchored again, when the sand would again wash out from under them. This process was continued
for days, until a broad channel of over eight feet was made, deep enough to allow the passage of the fleet into the sound.
On the 26th, one of our largest steamers got safety over the swash and anchored in the sound, where some of the gun-boats
had preceded them. By the 4th of February the entire fleet had anchored and had passed into the sound, and orders were given
for the advance on Roanoke Island. Detailed instructions were given for the landing of the
troops and the mode of attack.
At an early hour on
the morning of the 5th the start was made. The naval vessels, under Commodore Goldsborough, were in advance and on the flanks.
The sailing vessels containing troops were taken in tow by the steamers. There were in all sixty-five vessels. The fleet presented
an imposing appearance as it started up the sound. The day was most beautiful, and the sail was enjoyed beyond measure by
the soldiers, who had long been so penned up in the desolate inlet. At sundown, signal was given to come to anchor within
ten miles of Roanoke Island. At 8 o'clock the next morning the signal to weight anchor was
given, but our progress was very much retarded by a gale that sprung up; so we anchored, but very little in advance of our
position of the night before. During that night all lights were carefully concealed. The naval vessels were well out in advance
to protect the transports from the inroads of the rebel gun-boats.
On the morning of the
7th the gun-boats passed inside the narrow passage known as Roanoke Sound, and were soon abreast of the lower part of Roanoke Island. Soon after the naval fleet had passed through, the transport fleet began its passage.
The rebel gun-boats were seen close inshore under the batteries of the island. At half-past 10 o'clock a signal gun was fired
from one of the forts, announcing our approach. At half-past 11, one of the naval vessels opened fire, which was replied to
by the rebels. Signals were given by the commodore of the fleet to began the action. By noon the firing became rapid, and
soon after, the engagement became general. The rebels had driven a line of piles across the main channel to obstruct the progress
of our vessels, leaving a narrow space for themselves to retreat through; and as our naval vessels pressed them, they availed
themselves of this means of safety. Our guns soon got the range of their batteries, and, by most extraordinary skill and rapidity
of firing, almost silenced them. Just before noon I ordered a reconnaissance by a small boat, with the view of ascertaining
a point of landing. A young negro, who had escaped from the island on our arrival at Hatteras Inlet, had given me most valuable
information as to the nature of the shore of the island, from which I had determined that our point of landing should be at
Ashby's Harbor, which was nearly midway up the shore.
At 1 o'clock, the quarters
of the garrison in one of the forts were filled by one of our shells. The rebel gun-boats retired up the sound, but still
continued a brisk fire as they were followed by our vessels. Orders were given for the troops to land at 3 o'clock. The ground
in the rear of Ashby's Harbor was cleared by shells from the naval vessels, and our large surf-boats were lowered, rapidly
filled with troops, and towed up in long lines by light-draught vessels until they came near to the shore of the harbor, when
each of the surf-boats we cut loose and steered for the shore. There was no obstruction to their landing. In less than an
hour 4000 troops were ashore, and before midnight the entire force was landed, with the exception of one regiment, which was
landed on the morning of the 8th. The advance of our troops was ordered on this morning, General Foster being in the advance
and center, General Reno on the left, and General Parke on the right. Just above Ashby's Harbor the island from shore to shore
was marshy, swampy ground. A causeway had been built up the center of the island, and on this, about one mile and a half from
the harbor, was a fort, which was flanked by what seemed to be impassable ground; but it did not prove to be so to out troops.
General Foster pressed the rebels in front, General Reno passed around the left with his brigade, often waist-deep in the
marsh, through almost impenetrable thickets, until he gained the right flank of the enemy's line. General Parke performed
equally good service on the right, and after advantageous positions had been obtained, the work was carried by a simultaneous
assault, and from that time there was no hindrance to the march of our troops to the head of the island and to the forts on
the shore, where the entire garrison was captured. The naval fleet pursued the rebel gun-boats, nearly all of which, however,
were destroyed by their crews, to prevent capture. The results of this important victory were great, particularly in inspiring
the confidence of the country in the efficiency of its armies in the field.
The troops enjoyed
their rest at Roanoke Island, but were not allowed to remain idle long. On the 26th of February,
orders were given to make arrangements to embark for New Berne, and within four days they were all on board. On the 12th of
March, the entire command was anchored off the mouth of Slocum's Creek, and about fourteen miles from New Berne. The approach
to the city had been obstructed by piles and sunken vessels. About four miles from New Berne a large fort on the shore had
been built, with a heavy armament, and a line of earth-works extended from the fort inland a distance of some two miles, where
it ended in almost impassable ground.
On the night of the
12th, orders were given for landing, and on the morning of the 13th the troops were put ashore, in very much the same way
that they had been at Roanoke. By 1 o'clock the debarkation
was finished, and the troops were put in line of march. About this time the rain began to fall, and the road became almost
impassable. No ammunition could be carried except what the men themselves could carry. No artillery could be taken except
the small howitzers, which were hauled by the troops with drag-ropes. This was one of the most disagreeable and difficult
marches that I witnessed during the war. We came in contact with the enemy's pickets just before dark, when it was decided
to delay the attack until morning. That night a most dreary bivouac followed. Early the next morning, notwithstanding the
fog, the disposition for the attack was made. General Foster was ordered to engage the enemy on the right, General Reno to
pass on the extreme left, and General Parke to occupy the center. We were much nearer to the enemy than we expected, and were
soon in contact with them. General Foster rapidly closed with them, and met with severe resistance. He asked for reenforcements,
but was told that every man had been ordered into action, and that there were no reserves. The contest was sharp, but brief.
The 4th Rhode Island broke the enemy's line near where it
crossed the railroad, after which the enemy wavered, and a general advance of our whole line placed us in possession of the
works. The enemy fled to New Berne, burning the bridge behind them. Our troops rapidly pursued, but the fact that they had
to cross the river in boats prevented them from capturing the main body of the enemy. As it was, large numbers of prisoners
and munitions fell into our hands. In the meantime the naval vessels had worked their way up to the city and aided in the
transportation of the troops across, and New Berne was occupied on the afternoon of the 14th.
It still remained for
us to reduce Fort, Macon, Beaufort. To this work General Parke's
brigade was ordered. The country between New Berne and Beaufort was immediately occupied, and a passage by hand-car was made
between the two places, all the rolling-stock having been run off the road. By the morning of the 11th of April regular siege
operations had been begun by General Parke and were pressed rapidly forward, and by the 26th of April the garrison at Beaufort
had been forced to surrender.
Thus another victory
was to be inscribed upon our banner. The Rhode Island troops
bore a most honorable part in this conflict. After that, several small expeditions were sent into the interior of the country,
all of which were successful.
Much to my sorrow,
on the 3d of the following July, I was ordered to go to the Peninsula to consult with General McClellan, and after that my
duties as commanding officer in North Carolina ended; but a large proportion of the troops of the expedition served under
me during the remainder of the war, as members of the gallant Ninth Corps.
The Burnside expedition
has passed into history; its record we can be proud of. No body of troops ever had more difficulties to overcome in the same
space of time. Its perils were both by land and water. Defeat never befell it. No gun was lost by it. Its experience was a
succession of honorable victories.
|Burnside Expedition Battlefield Map
|Civil War North Carolina Map
THE OPPOSING FORCES
AT ROANOKE ISLAND AND NEW BERNE, N. C.
The composition, losses,
and strength of each army as here stated give the gist of all the date obtainable in the Official Records. K stands for killed;
w for wounded; m w for mortally wounded; m for captured or missing; c for captured.
THE UNION FORCES.
Ambrose E. Burnside.
L. M. Goldsborough.
Brig.-Gen. John G. Foster: 10th Conn., Col. Charles L. Russell (k at Roanoke), Lieut.-Col. Albert W. Drake; 23d Mass., Col.
John Kurtz; 24th Mass., Col. Thomas G. Stevenson; 25th Mass., Col. Edwin Upton; 27th Mass., Col. Horace C. Lee. Brigade loss:
Roanoke, k, 19; w, 113=132. New Berne,
k, 37; w, 145=182. Second Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Jesse L. Reno: 21st Mass.,
Lieut.-Col. Albert C. Maggri (at Roanoke), Lieut.-Col. Williams S. Clark (at New Berne); 9th
N. J., Lieut.-Col. Charles A. Heckman; 51st N. Y., Col. Edward Ferrero; 51st Pa.,
Col. John F. Hartranft. Brigade loss: Roanoke, k, 15; w, 79,
m; 13=107. New Berne, k, 30; w, 169=199. Third Brigade, Brig.-Gen. John G. Parke: 8th Conn., Col. Edward Harland; 11th Conn. (not at Roanoke),
Lieut.-Col. Charles Mathewson; 9th N. Y. (not at New Berne), Col. Rush C. Hawkins: 4th R. I., Col. Issac P. Rodman; 5th R.
I. (1st Battalion), Maj. John Wright. Brigade loss: Roanoke,
w, 17. New Berne, k, 21; w, 58=79. Unassigned: Detachment 1st N. Y. Marine Artillery, Col.
William A. Howard; Col. B, 99th N. Y. (Union Coast Guard), Lieut. Charles
W. Tillotson (c at New Berne). Unassigned loss: Roanoke Island,
k, 2; w, 5=7. New Berne, k, 2; w, 8; m, 1=11.
DIVISION OF ARMED VESSELS,
Capt. S. F. Hazard:
Picket, Capt. T. P.
Ives; Vidette, Capt. John L. Foster; Hussar, Capt. Frederick Crocker; Lancer, Capt. M. B. Morley; Ranger, Capt. Samuel Emerson;
Chasseur, Capt. John West; Pioneer, Capt. Charles E. Baker. [Only the Picket appears to have been used offensively in the
attack on New Berne.]
NAVAL DIVISION, Commander
S. C. Rowan:
Acting Master Com. Silas Reynolds; Stars and Stripes, Lieut.-Com. Reed Werden; Louisiana, Lieut.-Com. A. Murray; Hetzel, Lieut.-Com.
H. K. Davenport; Underwriter, Lieut.-Com. William N. Jeffers (at Roanoke), Lieut.-Com. A. Hopkins (at New Berne); Delaware,
Lieut.-Com. S. P. Quackenbush; Commodore Perry, Lieut.-Com. C. W. Flusser; Valley City, Lieut.-Com. J. C. Chaplin; Commodore
Barney, Acting Lieut.-Com. R. T. Renshaw; Hunchback, Acting Vol. Lieut.-Com. E. R. Colhoun; Southfield (flag-steamer temporarily
at Roanoke), Acting Vol. Lieut.-Com. C. F. W. Behm; Morse, Acting Master Com. Peter Hayes; Whitehead (at Roanoke), Acting
Master Com. Charles A. French; Lockwood, Acting Master Com. G. W. Graves; Brinker, Acting Master Com. John E. Giddings; Seymour
(at Roanoke), Acting Master Com. F. S. Wells; Ceres (at Roanoke), Acting Master Com. John McDiarmid; Putham (at Roanoke),
Acting Master Com. W. J. Hotchkiss; Shawesheen (at Roanoke), Acting Master Com. Thomas J. Woodward; Grantie (at Roanoke),
Acting Master's Mate Com. E. Boomer.
The batteries of the
Union vessels at Roanoke Island and New Berne were as follows: Philadelphia, 2 twelve-pounders; Stars and Stripes, 4 eight-inch,
1 twenty-pounder rifle, 2 twelve-pounders; Louisiana, 1 eight-inch, 3 thirty-two-pounders, 1 twelve-pounder; Hetzel, 1 nine-inch,
1 eighty-pounder rifle; Underwriter, 1 eighth-inch, 1 eighty-pounder rifle, 2 twelve-pounders; Delaware, 1 nine-inch, 1 thirty-two
pounder, 1 twelve-pounder; Commodore Perry, 1 one-hundred-pounder rifle, 4 nine-inch, 1 twelve-pounder; Valley City, 4 thirty-two-pounders,
1 twelve-pounder; Commodore Barney, 4 nine-inch, 1 thirty-two-pounder, 1 twelve-pounder; Hunchback, 3 nine-inch, 1 one-hundred-pounder
rifle; Southfield, 3 nine-inch, 1 one-hundred-pounder rifle; Morse, 2 nine-inch; Whitehead, 1 nine-inch; Lockwood, 1 eighty-pounder
rifle, 2 twelve-pounders; Henry Brinker, 1 thirty-pounder rifle; Seymour, 1 thirty-pounder rifle, 1 twelve-pounder; Ceres,
1 thirty-pounder rifle, 1 thirty-two-pounder; Putnam, 1 twenty-pounder rifle, 1 thirty-two-pounder; Shawsheen, 2 twenty-pounder
rifles; Granite, 1 thirty-two-pounder.
The total Union loss
at Roanoke Island was 37 killed, 214 wounded, and 13 missing=264; and at New Berne 90 killed,
380 wounded, and 1 missing-471. At the former place the navy lost (exclusive of details from the army) 3 killed and 11 wounded,
and at the latter place 4 wounded.
THE CONFEDERATE FORCES.
ISLAND, Brig.-Gen. Henry A. Wise, Col. H. M. Shaw (c),
second in command.
Troops: 2d N. C. Battalion,
Lieut.-Col. Wharton J. Green; 8th N. C., Col. H. M. Shaw; 17th N. C. (3 co's), Maj. G. H. Hill; 31st N. C., Col. John V. Jordan;
46th Va. Maj. H. W. Fry; 59th Va., Lieut.-Col. Frank P. Anderson.
NAVAL FORCES, Flag-Officer
William F. Lynch;
Lieut.-Com. Patrick McCarrick; Curlew, Com. Thomas T. Hunter; Ellis, Lieut.-Com. J. W. Cooke; Beaufort, Lieut.-Com. W. H.
Parker; Raleigh, Lieut.-Com. J. W. Alexander; Fanny, Midshipman Tayloe; Forrest, Lieut.-Com. James L. Hoole (w). The Sea-Bird
was armed with 1 thirty-two-pounder smooth-bore and 1 thirty-pounder rifle. The other vessels carried each 1 thirty-two-pounder
The total loss of the
Confederate army is reported at 26 killed, 58 wounded, 62 missing, and about 2500 captured. The loss of the navy was 6 wounded.
Brig.-Gen. L. O'B. Branch.
Troops: 7th N. C.,
Col. R. P. Campbell (commanded the right wing), Lieut.-Col. E. G. Haywood; 19th N. C. (cavalry), Col. S. B. Spurill; 26th
N. C., Col. Zebulon B. Vance; 27th N. C., Maj. John A. Gilmer, Jr.; 28th N. C., Lieut.-Col. Thomas L. Lowe; 33d N. C., Col.
Clark M. Avery (c), Lieut.-Col. R. F. Hooke; 35th N. C., Col. James SinclaIr; 37th N. C., Col. Charles C. Lee (commanded the
left wing), Lieut.-Col. William M. Barbour; Company N. C. Heavy Artillery, Captain C. C. Whitehurst; Special Battalion N.
C. Militia, Col. H. J. B. Clark; N. C. Batteries, Capts. T. H. Brem and A. C. Latham.
The total Confederate
loss was 64 killed, 101 wounded, 413 captured or missing-578. Branch says of the missing, "About 200 are prisoners and the
remainder at home."
There is no definite statement
in the Official Records of the numbers engaged on either side, and the returns furnish no satisfactory basis for an estimate.
Source: Battles &
Leaders of the Civil War
Reading: The Civil War in the Carolinas (Hardcover). Description: Dan Morrill relates the
experience of two quite different states bound together in the defense of the Confederacy, using letters, diaries, memoirs,
and reports. He shows how the innovative operations of the Union army and navy
along the coast and in the bays and rivers of the Carolinas affected the general course of
the war as well as the daily lives of all Carolinians. He demonstrates the "total war" for North Carolina's vital coastal railroads and ports. In the latter
part of the war, he describes how Sherman's operation cut
out the heart of the last stronghold of the South. Continued below...
offers fascinating sketches of major and minor personalities, including the new president and state governors, Generals Lee,
Beauregard, Pickett, Sherman, D.H. Hill, and Joseph E. Johnston. Rebels and abolitionists, pacifists and unionists, slaves
and freed men and women, all influential, all placed in their context with clear-eyed precision. If he were wielding a needle
instead of a pen, his tapestry would offer us a complete picture of a people at war. Midwest Book Review: The Civil War in the Carolinas by civil war expert and historian
Dan Morrill (History Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and Director of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Historical
Society) is a dramatically presented and extensively researched survey and analysis of the impact the American Civil War had
upon the states of North Carolina and South Carolina, and the people who called these states their home. A meticulous, scholarly,
and thoroughly engaging examination of the details of history and the sweeping change that the war wrought for everyone, The
Civil War In The Carolinas is a welcome and informative addition to American Civil War Studies reference collections.
Civil War in Coastal North Carolina (175 pages) (North Carolina Division of Archives and History). Description: From the drama of blockade-running to graphic descriptions of battles on the state's islands and sounds,
this book portrays the explosive events that took place in North Carolina's coastal region during the Civil War.
Topics discussed include the strategic importance of coastal North Carolina,
Federal occupation of coastal areas, blockade-running, and the impact of war on civilians along the Tar Heel coast.
Reading: Ironclads and Columbiads:
The Coast (The Civil War in North Carolina)
(456 pages). Description: Ironclads
and Columbiads covers some of the most important battles and campaigns in the state. In January 1862, Union forces
began in earnest to occupy crucial points on the North Carolina
coast. Within six months, Union army and naval forces effectively controlled coastal North Carolina
from the Virginia line south to present-day Morehead
City. Union setbacks in Virginia, however, led to the withdrawal of many
federal soldiers from North Carolina, leaving only enough Union troops to hold a few coastal strongholds—the vital ports
and railroad junctions. The South during the Civil War, moreover, hotly contested the North’s ability to maintain its
grip on these key coastal strongholds.
Reading: Storm over Carolina: The Confederate Navy's Struggle for Eastern
North Carolina. Description: The struggle for control of the eastern waters of North Carolina
during the War Between the States was a bitter, painful, and sometimes humiliating one for the Confederate navy. No better
example exists of the classic adage, "Too little, too late." Burdened by the lack of adequate warships, construction
facilities, and even ammunition, the South's naval arm fought bravely and even recklessly to stem the tide of the Federal
invasion of North Carolina from the raging Atlantic. Storm Over Carolina is the account of the Southern navy's struggle in North Carolina waters and it is a saga of crushing defeats interspersed with moments of
brilliant and even spectacular victories. It is also the story of dogged Southern determination and incredible perseverance
in the face of overwhelming odds. Continued below...
For most of
the Civil War, the navigable portions of the Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Chowan, and Pasquotank rivers were
occupied by Federal forces. The Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, as well as most of the coastal towns and counties, were also
under Union control. With the building of the river ironclads, the Confederate navy at last could strike a telling blow against
the invaders, but they were slowly overtaken by events elsewhere. With the war grinding to a close, the last Confederate vessel
in North Carolina waters was destroyed. William T. Sherman
was approaching from the south, Wilmington was lost, and the
Confederacy reeled as if from a mortal blow. For the Confederate navy, and even more so for the besieged citizens of eastern
North Carolina, these were stormy days indeed. Storm Over Carolina describes their story, their struggle, their history.
Civil War on the Outer Banks: A History of the Late Rebellion Along the Coast of North Carolina from Carteret to Currituck
With Comments on Prewar Conditions and an Account of (251 pages). Description:
The ports at Beaufort, Wilmington, New Bern and Ocracoke, part of the Outer Banks (a chain of barrier islands that sweeps
down the North Carolina coast from the Virginia Capes to Oregon Inlet), were strategically vital for the import of war
materiel and the export of cash producing crops. From official records, contemporary newspaper accounts, personal journals
of the soldiers, and many unpublished manuscripts and memoirs, this is a full
accounting of the Civil War along the North Carolina coast.
Reading: The Civil War in North Carolina. Description:
Numerous battles and skirmishes were fought in North Carolina
during the Civil War, and the campaigns and battles themselves were crucial in the grand strategy of the conflict and involved
some of the most famous generals of the war. John Barrett presents the complete story of military engagements across the state,
including the classical pitched battle of Bentonville--involving Generals Joe Johnston and William Sherman--the siege of Fort Fisher, the amphibious
campaigns on the coast, and cavalry sweeps such as General George Stoneman's Raid.