|American Civil War Soldier
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
The life of a soldier in the 1860s was a arduous one and for the thousands of young Americans who left home to fight
for their cause, it was an experience none of them would ever forget. Military service meant many months away from home and
loved ones, long hours of drill, often inadequate food or shelter, disease, and many days spent marching on hot, dusty roads
or in a driving rainstorm burdened with everything a man needed to be a soldier as well as baggage enough to make his life
as comfortable as possible. There were long stretches of boredom in camp interspersed with moments of sheer terror experienced
on the battlefield. For these civilians turned soldiers, it was very difficult at first getting used to the rigors and demands
of army life. Most had been farmers all of their lives and were indifferent to the need to obey orders. Discipline was first
and foremost a difficult concept to understand, especially in the beginning when the officer one had to salute may have been
the hometown postmaster only a few weeks before. Uniforms issued in both armies were not quite as fancy as those worn by the
hometown militias and soldiering did not always mean fighting. There were fatigue duties such as assignments to gather wood
for cook fires. Metal fittings had to be polished, horses groomed and watered, fields had to be cleared for parades and drill,
and there were water details for the cook house. Guard duty meant long hours pacing up and down a well-trod line, day or night,
rain or shine, always on watch for a foe who might be lurking anywhere in the hostile countryside. A furlough was hard to
come by as every man was needed in the field and few men had a chance to ever visit home.
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
A soldier's home in camp was a rectangular piece of canvas
buttoned to another to form a small two-man tent or dog tent as the soldiers called them. First introduced in 1862,
every Union soldier was issued one for use during active campaign and the men joked that only a dog could crawl under it and
stay dry from the rain. The tent could be easily pitched for the evening by tying each end to a rifle stuck in the ground
by the bayonet or by stringing it up to fence rails. Confederates did not receive shelter tents though some Confederate units
were issued a variation of the tent, which they pitched as a lean-to or shelter. As the war progressed it was very common
for a Confederate camp to be filled with captured Union tents as well as captured blankets, canteens, and haversacks. Confederates
especially prized the Union rubber blankets, which were not manufactured in the south and were ideal as a ground cloth or
Marching and fighting drill was part of the daily routine for the Civil War
soldier. Infantry soldiers drilled as squads and in company formations, each man getting accustomed to orders and formations
such as marching in column and in a "company front", how to face properly, dress the line, and interact with his fellow soldiers.
After an hour of drill on that level, the company moved onto regimental level drills and parades. The soldier practiced guard
mount and other procedures such as the Manual of Arms, which infantrymen learned for the rifle-musket. Veterans of the war
often remarked how they could recite the steps of loading and priming for many years after the war, thanks to the continual
drill. The drill was important for the infantry for they used tactics that had changed little since the time of the American
Revolution or the age of Napoleon: infantry fought in closely knit formations of two ranks (or rows) of soldiers, each man
in the rank standing side by side. This formation was first devised when the single-shot, muzzle loading musket became the
normal weapon on the battlefield, the close ranks being a necessity because of the limitations of the musket. Yet, by 1861,
new technology had made the old fashioned smoothbore musket nearly obsolete with the introduction of the rifle musket. By
the time of the Gettysburg Campaign, the rifle musket made up the majority of infantry weapons in both the Union and Confederate armies though it took much longer
for the tactics to change. Even with the advance of the rifle musket, the weapons were still muzzle loaders and officers believed
that the old-fashioned drill formations were still useful to insure a massing of continuous firepower that the individual
soldier could not sustain. The result of this slow change was a much higher than anticipated rate of casualties on the battlefield.
Cavalrymen drilled with their sabers, both on foot and horseback, while artillerymen
drilled with their cannons limbered up to the team of horses and unlimbered, ready to fire. Oddly enough, marksmanship on
a rifle range did not take precedence over other drill the soldiers learned for several reasons- the military believed that
each man would shoot accurately when told to and the war departments did not wish to waste ammunition fired on random targets.
|Life of the Civil War Soldier
|While advancing into battle, the primary objective of the Civil War Soldier was to win the fight
(About) 1st Minnesota Volunteers advancing during Battle of Gettysburg.
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
For the infantry, drums were used to announce daily activities, from sunrise to sunset. Reveille was sounded
to begin the day at 5 AM, followed by an assembly for morning roll call and breakfast call. Sick call was sounded soon after
breakfast, followed by assemblies for guard duty, drill, or to begin the march. Drummers were also important on the march
to keep soldiers in step during parades and to call them to attention. In battle, drums were sometimes used to signal maneuvers
and give signals for the ranks to load and fire their weapons. The artillery and cavalry relied solely on buglers who were
as important in their roles as the drummers were to the infantry. When not playing for their respective regiments, musicians
were often combined with regimental or brigade bands to play marching tunes or provide field music for parades, inspections,
Army camps were like a huge bustling city of white canvas, sometimes obscured
by smoke from hundreds of campfires. Camps were considered temporary throughout the year until the winter months when the
armies would establish winter quarters. The soldiers would construct log huts that were large enough to accommodate several
men, made of trees taken from any nearby source. The logs were laid out on stones underneath the bottom log, in a rectangle
and notched to fit tight at the corners and stones, brick, or mud-covered logs were formed into a small fireplace in one end.
Mud filled the gap between the logs and inside of the chimney over the fireplace. A roof made from tents or sawn boards and
wooded bunks built inside finished the hut. Soldiers often named their winter huts after well known hotels or restaurants
back home such as "Wiltshire Hotel" or "Madigan's Oyster House". The armies quartered in these small huts through the winter
months and then it was back to the field and dog tents.
|American Civil War Soldiers
|(Battles & Leaders)
The soldier of 1863 wore a wool uniform, a belt set that included a cartridge
box, cap box, bayonet and scabbard, a haversack for rations, a canteen, and a blanket roll or knapsack which contained a wool
blanket, a shelter half and perhaps a rubber blanket or poncho. Inside was a change of socks, writing paper, stamps and envelopes,
ink and pen, razor, toothbrush, comb and other personal items. The amount of baggage each soldier carried differed from man
to man. The southern soldier was highly regarded for traveling with a very light load basically because he did not have the
extra items available to him that the northern soldier had. Southern uniforms were quite different from the northern uniforms,
consisting of a short-waist jacket and trousers made of "jean" cloth- a blend of wool and cotton threads which was very durable.
Dyed by different methods, the uniforms were a variation of greys and browns. Northern soldiers called Confederates "butternuts"
because of the tan-grey color of the uniforms. Vests were also worn and were often made of jean material as well. Shirts and
undergarments were universally of cotton material and often sent to the soldiers from home. Southern-made shoes were of very
poor quality and difficult to obtain. Union uniforms were universally of better quality because of numerous mills throughout
the north that could manufacture wool cloth and the steady import of material from Europe. The Union soldier's blouse and
trousers were wool and dyed a dark blue until 1862 when the trouser color was altered to a lighter shade of blue. The floppy-crowned
forage cap, made of wool broadcloth with a leather visor, was either loved or loathed, but universally worn by most soldiers
in the Army of the Potomac. Each soldier would adorn his cap with brass letters of the regiment and company to which he belonged.
Beginning in 1863, corps badges were designed for the different army corps and these were universally adopted for the top
of the cap. Like their Confederate counterparts, most Union soldiers disdained the itchy wool flannel army shirt for cotton
shirts and undergarments sent from home.
|Soldier at Camp
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
Leisure activities were similar in either army and most of it was spent writing letters home. Soldiers were
prolific letter writers and wrote at every opportunity. It was the only way for them to communicate with loved ones and inform
the home folks of their condition and where they were. Thrifty soldiers sent their pay home to support their families and
kept only a small amount to see them through until the next payday. The arrival of mail in camp was a cause for celebration
no matter where the soldiers were and there was sincere grumbling when the mail arrived late. The lucky soldiers who received
a letter from home often read and re-read them many times. Packages from home contained baked goods, new socks or shirts,
underwear, and often soap, towels, combs, and toothbrushes. Union soldiers often spent their free time at the sutler's store,
comparable to the modern post exchange, where they could purchase toiletries, canned fruit, pocketknives, and other supplementary
items, but usually at exorbitant prices. A private's salary amounted to $13.00 per month in 1863 and those unfortunates who
owed the sutler watched as most of their pay was handed over to the greedy businessman on pay day. Confederates did not have
the luxury of sutlers, which disappeared soon after the war began. Instead they depended on the generosity of folks at home
or farmers and businessmen near the camps.
Free time was also spent in card games, reading, pitching horseshoes, or team
sports such as the fledgling sport of baseball, a game which rapidly gained favor among northern troops. Rule booklets were
widely distributed and the game soon became a favorite. Soldiers also played a form of football that appeared more like a
huge brawl than the game we know today, and often resulted in broken noses and fractured limbs. Holidays were celebrated in
camp with feasts, foot races, horse racing, music, boxing matches, and other contests. But while on active campaign, the soldiers
were limited to writing, cleaning uniforms and equipment, and sleeping.
|Lt. Custer and Friend, 1862
|(Miller's Photographic History)
Despite orders to the contrary, many soldiers kept pets with them including dogs, cats, squirrels, raccoons,
and other wildlife. One regiment from Wisconsin even had a pet eagle that was carried on its own perch next to the regimental
flags. General Lee was purported to have had a pet chicken that faithfully delivered a fresh egg for the general everyday.
By far the most popular pets appears to have been dogs and their presence with a master in camp or on the march was often
overlooked by high commanders. Many officers, including General George Armstrong Custer who kept a number of dogs around his
headquarters, favored the hardiness of these loyal companions and their companionship was, as one soldier put it, a "soothing
connection" with home. Both the 11th Pennsylvania Infantry and the 1st Maryland Infantry (CSA) had singular dogs that followed
the men through the most difficult campaigns including Gettysburg. Sallie, the 11th Pennsylvania's unofficial mascot, is remembered
in a bronze likeness on the regimental monument at Gettysburg and symbolized there for its loyalty to the dead of the regiment.
The canine that accompanied the 1st Maryland was regrettably killed in action on July 3 at Culp's Hill, after having participated in the charge of the regiment. So struck by the animal's gallantry and loyalty to
its human companions, a Union officer ordered the animal be given a proper burial alongside the dead of 1st Maryland.
|Cooking Over the Campfire
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
"Hard crackers, hard crackers, come again no more!"
By far, the food soldiers received has been the source of more stories than
any other aspect of army life. The Union soldier received a variety of edibles. The food issue, or ration, was usually
meant to last three days while on active campaign and was based on the general staples of meat and bread. Meat usually came
in the form of salted pork or, on rare occasions, fresh beef. Rations of pork or beef were boiled, broiled or fried over open
campfires. Army bread was a flour biscuit called hardtack, re-named "tooth-dullers", "worm castles", and "sheet iron crackers"
by the soldiers who ate them. Hardtack could be eaten plain though most men preferred to toast them over a fire, crumble them
into soups, or crumble and fry them with their pork and bacon fat in a dish called skillygalee. Other food items included
rice, peas, beans, dried fruit, potatoes, molasses, vinegar, and salt. Baked beans were a northern favorite when the time
could be taken to prepare them and a cooking pot with a lid could be obtained. Coffee was a most desirable staple and some
soldiers considered the issue of coffee and accompanying sugar more important than anything else. Coffee beans were distributed
green so it was up to the soldiers to roast and grind them. The task for this most desirable of beverages was worth every
second as former soldier John Billings recalled: "What a Godsend it seemed to us at times! How often after being completely
jaded by a night march... have I had a wash, if there was water to be had, made and drunk my pint or so of coffee and felt
as fresh and invigorated as if just arisen from a night's sound sleep!"
Soldiers often grouped themselves into a "mess" to combine and share rations,
often with one soldier selected as cook or split duty between he and another man. But while on active campaign, rations were
usually prepared by each man to the individual's taste. It was considered important for the men to cook the meat ration as
soon as it was issued, for it could be eaten cold if activity prevented cook fires. A common campaign dinner was salted pork
sliced over hardtack with coffee boiled in tin cups that each man carried.
The southern soldier's diet was considerably different from his northern counterpart
and usually in much less quantity. The average Confederate subsisted on bacon, cornmeal, molasses, peas, tobacco, vegetables
and rice. They also received a coffee substitute which was not as desirable as the real coffee northerners had. Trades of
tobacco for coffee were quite common throughout the war when fighting was not underway. Other items for trade or barter included
newspapers, sewing needles, buttons, and currency.
|Soldiers at Play
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
Soldiers loved to sing and there were many tunes popular in both armies. A variety of instruments were available
to musically minded soldiers including guitars, banjos, flutes, and harmonicas. More industrious soldiers fashioned string
instruments such as fiddles out of wooden cigar boxes. Regimental or brigade bands often played during the evening hours and
there were instances of army bands being heard to play favorite tunes for the opposition when the armies were separated by
a river or siege line. Some of the more popular tunes for southerners were "Lorena", "Maryland My Maryland", and "The Bonnie
Blue Flag". Union soldiers had "The Battle Cry Of Freedom", "Battle Hymn of the Republic", and "Tenting on the Old Campground"
as favorites. The men of both sides also enjoyed minstrel tunes such as "My Old Kentucky Home", "The Arkansas Traveler", and
Religion was very important in the soldier's daily routine. Many of the men
attended church services on a regular basis and some even carried small testaments with the rest of their baggage. Union and
Confederate armies had numerous regimental and brigade chaplains. These loyal officers also acted as assistants in field hospitals
comforting the sick and wounded, and writing letters home for those who could not write. Chaplains held field services for
their respective units and most accompanied the soldiers as they marched onto the battlefield. Father William Corby, the chaplain
of the Irish Brigade, is best remembered for his granting of unconditional absolution to the members of the brigade before they marched into battle
in the Wheatfield on July 2nd. Father Corby was immensely popular with the men and in the post-war era became president of
Notre Dame University.
|(Hardtack and Coffee)
Discipline in the military was very strict. The Provost Marshal of the army was responsible for enforcing
military rules, but regimental commanders also had the authority to dole out punishments for minor offenses. Petty offenses
such as shirking camp duty or not keeping equipment in good order were usually treated with extra duties such as digging latrines,
chopping wood, or standing extra hours on guard duty. Insubordination, thievery, cowardice, or other offenses were more serious
and the guilty party was usually subjected to embarrassing punishments such as carrying a log, standing on a barrel, or wearing
a placard announcing his crime. "Bucking and gagging" was also common punishment- the soldier's limbs were bound and he was
gagged so he could not speak. In the artillery, the guilty person might be tied to the spare wheel on the back of a caisson.
Desertion, spying, treachery, murder, or threats on an officer's life were the most serious offenses to which the perpetrator
was condemned to military prison or shot by a firing squad. Crimes committed against civilians were also punishable by the
army and felons were executed by hanging before a formation of soldiers.
Sickness and disease was the scourge of both armies and more men died of disease
than in battle. Sanitation in the camps was very poor. Germs and the existence of bacteria had not yet been discovered, and
medical science was quite primitive by today's standards. Morning sick call was played in camp and ailing soldiers trudged
to the surgeon's tent where the "sawbones" examined the sick. Quinine or other stimulants were administered, including an
elixir called "Blue Mass". Whiskey was universally given for most ailments as was brandy and other stimulants. Extremely ill
soldiers were sent to brigade hospitals where most were further affected by disease. Thousands of men in both armies died
without ever firing a shot in battle.
The singular purpose of the soldier was to fight a battle and win. There were
a variety of firearms used during the Civil War. The average infantryman carried a muzzle-loading rifle-musket manufactured in American arsenals or one purchased from foreign countries such as England. The bayonet was an important
part of the rifle and its steel presence on the muzzle of the weapon was very imposing. When not in battle, the bayonet was
a handy candle holder and useful in grinding coffee beans. The typical rifle-musket weighed eight and one-half pounds and
fired a conical shaped bullet called the Minie Ball. Bullets were made of very soft lead and caused horrible wounds
which were difficult to heal. The artillery was composed of both rifled and smoothbore cannon, each gun served by a crew of
fourteen men including the drivers. The role of the artillery was to support the infantry while the infantry role was to either
attack or defend, depending on the circumstances. Both branches worked together to coordinate their tactics on the field of
battle. Cavalrymen were armed with breech loading carbines, sabers, and pistols. Cavalry was initially used for scouting purposes
and to guard supply trains. The role of mounted troops had expanded by the time of Gettysburg, with cavalry divisions acting
as skirmishers and fighting mounted and on foot in pitched battles such as Brandy Station, Virginia on June 9, 1863. Other branches of the armies included the signal corps, engineers, medical and hospital corps,
as well as supply organizations including the quartermasters.
|Union and Confederate Soldiers in Battle
|Civil War Soldier embraced two facts: I will live and I will die
(About) Union soldier disemboweled at the Wheatfield, Battle of Gettysburg.
The end of the war in 1865 brought a welcome peace, especially for the men
who served as soldiers. Armies were disbanded and regiments mustered out of service. Former soldiers returned to the farms
and stores they had left so long ago, but the memories of their service and old comrades did not disappear quite so rapidly.
In the decade following the end of the Civil War, organizations of veterans of the North and South were formed. Northern veterans
joined the Grand Army of the Republic and Confederate veterans enrolled in the United Confederate Veterans.
For many years, G.A.R. posts and U.C.V. chapters met over reunion campfires retelling stories and recalling the friends who
did not return. Many veterans wrote articles, stories, and poems for the
magazines of both organizations. The G.A.R. and U.C.V. held powerful influence in political circles from 1878 through the
turn of the century, but their influence faded as veterans in congress retired and passed out of politics. The last hurrah
for both organizations came at The Great Gettysburg Reunion of 1913 when 54,000 veterans attended the 1913 Anniversary celebration and Grand Reunion, and both organizations formally joined
in a singular purpose of national unification and peace. America's involvement in the Great War (World War I) four years later
brought hundreds of aged "Yanks" and "Johnnies" out to march together in military parades for one last time before they quickly
faded into the background as the nation's attention focused on her "doughboys" serving in Europe.
Though the Civil War veterans faded away, the armies in which they once marched
were forever honored by the parks they helped establish at Shiloh, Antietam, Vicksburg, Chickamauga and Gettysburg.
(Sources and related reading listed below.)
Recommended Reading: The Fighting
Men of the Civil War, by William C. Davis (Author), Russ A. Pritchard (Author). Description: "A must for
any Civil War library!" The sweeping histories of the War Between the States often overlook the men in whose blood that history
was written. This account goes a long way toward redressing the balance in favor of the men in the ranks. The reader follows
the soldiers from enlistment and training to campaigning. Attention is also given to oft-forgotten groups such as the
sailors and black troops. Continued below...
No effort has
been spared to include rare war era photographs and color photos of rare artifacts. Engagingly written by William C. Davis,
the author of more than thirty books on the American Civil War. Award winning author and historian James M. McPherson states:
"The most readable, authoritative, and beautifully designed illustrated history
of the American Civil War."
Reading: The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (444
pages) (Louisiana State University Press) (Updated edition: November 2007) Description: The Life of Johnny Reb does not merely
describe the battles and skirmishes fought by the Confederate foot soldier. Rather, it provides an intimate history of a soldier's
daily life--the songs he sang, the foods he ate, the hopes and fears he experienced, the reasons he fought. Wiley examined
countless letters, diaries, newspaper accounts, and official records to construct this frequently poignant, sometimes humorous
account of the life of Johnny Reb. In a new foreword for this updated edition, Civil War expert James I. Robertson, Jr., explores
the exemplary career of Bell Irvin Wiley, who championed the common folk, whom he saw as ensnared in the great conflict of
the 1860s. Continued below...
"A Civil War
classic."--Florida Historical Quarterly
deserves to be on the shelf of every Civil War modeler and enthusiast."--Model Retailer
painted with skill a picture of the life of the Confederate private. . . . It is a picture that is not only by far the most
complete we have ever had but perhaps the best of its kind we ever shall have."--Saturday Review of Literature
Recommended Reading: Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union
(488 pages) (Louisiana State University Press). Description: This fascinating social history reveals that while the Yanks and the Rebs fought for very different causes, the men
on both sides were very much the same. "This wonderfully interesting book is the finest memorial the Union soldier is ever
likely to have. . . . [Wiley] has written about the Northern troops with an admirable objectivity, with sympathy and understanding
and profound respect for their fighting abilities. He has also written about them with fabulous learning and considerable
pace and humor.
Hardtack & Coffee or The Unwritten Story of Army
Life. Description: Most histories
of the Civil War focus on battles and top brass. Hardtack and Coffee is one of the few to give a vivid, detailed picture of
what ordinary soldiers endured every day—in camp, on the march, at the edge of a booming, smoking hell. John D. Billings
of Massachusetts enlisted in the Army of the Potomac and
survived the hellish conditions as a “common foot soldier” of the American Civil War. "Billings describes an insightful account of the conflict
– the experiences of every day life as a common foot-soldier – and a view of the war that is sure to score with
every buff." The authenticity of his book is heightened by the many drawings that a comrade, Charles W. Reed, made
while in the field. This is the story of how the Civil War soldier was recruited, provisioned, and disciplined. Continued
are the types of men found in any outfit; their not very uniform uniforms; crowded tents and makeshift shelters; difficulties
in keeping clean, warm, and dry; their pleasure in a cup of coffee; food rations, dominated by salt pork and the versatile
cracker or hardtack; their brave pastimes in the face of death; punishments for various offenses; treatment in sick bay; firearms
and signals and modes of transportation. Comprehensive and anecdotal, Hardtack and Coffee is striking for the pulse of life
that runs through it.
Shock Troops of the Confederacy (Hardcover: 432 pages). Description: Fred Ray's Shock Troops of
the Confederacy is primarily focused on the "sharpshooter battalions" of the Army of Northern Virginia. In a Civil
War context, "sharpshooter" was usually more akin to "skirmisher" than "sniper," although these specialized battalions also
used innovative open order assault techniques, especially late in the war. Continued below...
Ray includes, however, a detailed study of Union
sharpshooter battalions and Confederate sharpshooters in the West. Remarkably, little has been published about such organizations
in the past, so Fred Ray's book offers a unique study of the evolution of Civil War infantry tactics, revealing a more complex,
sophisticated approach to the battlefield than is usually understood.
Sources: Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank, The Common Soldier of the Union, Louisiana State University
Press, Baton Rouge, 1952 & 1978; Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb, The Common Soldier of the Confederacy, Louisiana
State University Press, Baton Rouge, 1943 & 1978; John D. Billings, Hardtack & Coffee or The Unwritten Story of Army
Life, Benchmark Publishing Corp., Glendale, NY, 1970 (reprint); National Park Service; National Archives; Library of Congress;
Gettysburg National Military Park; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR SOLDIER LIFE OF THE CIVIL WAR SOLDIER What was it like as a Civil War soldier?
Soldier’s experience in Battle Combat Camp Prisoner of War AMERICAN CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS EXPERIENCES