of Battles, Total Killed and Casualties, and Results
|Territory US gained as result of Mexican War Map
|Land acquired by US as result of Mexican-American War Map
The Mexican War between the United States and Mexico began when Gen. Zachary Taylor's army at Corpus Christi advanced to the Rio Grande.
With increased tensions already existing between the neighboring nations, the Mexican government viewed the U.S. military
advance as "most provocative" and as "an act of war." The Mexican War was merely a continuation of more than
a decade of unsettled hostilities between the two nations as a result of the Texas War of Independence, including the Battle of the Alamo, and when the Republic of Texas, which Mexico had never recognized, was officially annexed and admitted into the Union as the 28th U.S. state only 117
days prior to the opening salvos on April 25, 1845, President James K. Polk, in a grand desire to acquire more territory for
the United States, had intentionally provoked Mexico to a state of war.
While the United States had recently adopted its territorial expansion
doctrine known as Manifest Destiny, it had implemented it at the expense of the sovereign nation of Mexico. Polk
ran on the Democratic Platform supporting Manifest Destiny, stating that Americans were predestined to occupy the entire North
American continent. The last act of Polk's predecessor, President John Tyler, had been to annex the Republic of Texas in 1845.
Polk would subsequently lay claim to California, New Mexico, and land near the disputed southern border of Texas.
Polk initially tried to purchase the land. He sent an American diplomat,
John Slidell, to Mexico City to offer $30 million for it, but the Mexican government refused to even meet with Slidell. Polk,
extremely frustrated, was determined at all hazards to acquire the land, so he sent American troops to Texas in January
of 1846 to provoke the Mexicans into war.
When Mexican troops attacked American troops that had moved into its territory along
the southern border of Texas on Apr. 25, 1846, the Mexican War commenced. Fighting ended when U.S. Gen. Winfield Scott occupied Mexico City on Sept. 14, 1847. A few months later, with
the defeat of Mexico, a peace treaty, known as the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and informally as the Mexican Cession, was signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo on Feb. 2, 1848. In addition to recognizing the U.S. annexation
of Texas, Mexico ceded 55% of its nation, including California, New Mexico, and all the present-day
states of the Southwest to the United States. The unconscionable act used to acquire the majority portion of Mexico
would force the defeated foe into financial ruin, bankruptcy, and stymie its economical growth for a century.
The words that perhaps best summarize the Mexican War were written
by a man, who, having fought in the conflict as a young U.S. Army officer, would later serve the nation as "General
of the United States Army" and afterwards as 18th President of the United States. In 1885, Ulysses S. Grant wrote in his acclaimed memoirs that the Mexican War was "one
of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example
of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory."
|Mexican-American War Battles and Campaigns Map
|Casualties of Mexican-American War Battles and Campaigns Map
|US Mexican War Map
|US Mexican War Map
|Mexican War border dispute Map
|Boundary prior to Mexican-American War Map
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican
War, and the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States and the Centralist Republic of Mexico (which
became the Second Federal Republic of Mexico during the war) from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the U.S. annexation
and statehood of Texas on the same day in 1845, which Mexico considered part of its territory, despite the Texas Revolution in 1836 (known also as Texas War of Independence) and creation of the Republic of Texas.
Combat operations lasted a year and a half, from the spring of 1846 to the
fall of 1847. American forces quickly occupied New Mexico and California, then invaded parts of Northeastern Mexico and Northwest
Mexico; meanwhile, the Pacific Squadron conducted a blockade, and took control of several
garrisons on the Pacific coast further south in Baja California. Another American army captured Mexico City, and the war ended
in a victory for the United States.
(Right) The Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. states are superimposed on the boundaries
of 1836–1845. Boundary dispute between United States and Mexico Map. Map shows conflicting national boundaries leading
to the Mexican War. Both the United States and Mexico argued their positions, but neither side was willing to compromise and
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the major consequence of the war: the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the United States in exchange for $15 million. In addition,
the United States assumed $3.25 million of debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico accepted the loss
of Texas and thereafter cited the Rio Grande as its national border.
American territorial expansion to the Pacific coast had been the goal of
President James K. Polk, the leader of the Democratic Party. The war however was highly controversial in the United States,
with the Whig Party, anti-imperialists and anti-slavery elements strongly opposed. Heavy American casualties and high monetary
cost were also criticized. The political aftermath of the war raised the question of expansion of slavery into the newly
acquired territory by the United States, which led to intense debates in Washington, the Compromise of 1850, sectionalism, and the American
As with all major events, historical interpretations concerning the causes
of the Mexican War vary. Simply stated, a dictatorial Centralist government in Mexico began the war because of the U.S. annexation
(1845) of Texas, which Mexico continued to claim despite the establishment of the independent Republic of Texas 10 years before. Some historians have argued, however, that the United States provoked the war by annexing Texas and, more
deliberately, by stationing an army at the mouth of the Rio Grande. Another, related, interpretation maintains that the administration
of U.S. President James K. Polk forced Mexico to war in order to seize California and the Southwest. A minority believes the
war arose simply out of Mexico's failure to pay claims for losses sustained by U.S. citizens during the Mexican War of Independence.
|Mexican-American War Battles
|Mexican War and Battle of Palo Alto, May 8, 1846.
(About) Battle of Palo Alto near Brownsville, fought on May 8, 1846 in the
Mexican-American War. View from behind the U.S. lines towards the Mexican positions in the south. Hand-colored lithograph.
At the time of the war, Mexico had a highly unstable government. The federal
constitution of 1824 had been abrogated in 1835 and replaced by a centralized
dictatorship. Two diametrically opposed factions had arisen: the Federalists, who supported a constitutional democracy; and
the Centralists, who supported an autocratic government under a monarch or dictator. Various clashing parties of Centralists
were in control of the government from 1835 to December 1844. During that time numerous rebellions and insurgencies occurred
within Mexican territory, including the temporary disaffection of California and the Texas Revolution, which resulted in the independence (1836) of Texas.
In December 1844 a coalition of moderates and Federalists forced the dictator
Antonio López de Santa Anna into exile and installed Jose Joaquin Herrera as acting president of Mexico. The victory was a short-lived,
uneasy one. Although Santa Anna himself was in Cuba, other Centralists began planning the overthrow of Herrera, and the U.S.
annexation of Texas in 1845 provided them with a jingoistic cause.
|Mexican War, Battle of Resaca de la Palma
|Mexican War and 2d US Dragoons slashing through the Mexican Army lines.
(Right) Captain Charles A. May's squadron of the 2d Dragoons slashes through the Mexican Army lines at the
Battle of Resaca de la Palma, Texas, May 9, 1846.
The U.S. annexation of Texas, by a joint congressional resolution (Feb. 27-28,
1845), had caused considerable political debate in the United States. The desire of the Texas Republic to join the United
States had been blocked for several years by antislavery forces, which feared that several new slave states would be created
from the Texas territory. The principal factor that led the administration of John Tyler to take action was British interest
in independent Texas. Indeed, anti-British feeling lay behind most of the expansionist policy statements of the United States
in this period. James Polk won the 1844 presidential election by advocating a belligerent stand against Britain on the Oregon
Question. Once in office he declared that "the people of this continent alone have the right to decide their own destiny."
About the same time the term Manifest Destiny came into vogue to describe what was regarded as a God-given right to expand U.S. territory. The term was applied particularly
to the Oregon dispute, but it had relevance also to California, where American settlers warned of British intrigues to take
control, and to Texas.
The Mexican Response and
the Slidell Mission
|Mexican-American War Battle of Chapultepec
|Battle of Chapultepec in the Mexican War
As early as August 1843, Santa Anna's government had informed the United States
that it would "consider equivalent to a declaration of war . . . the passage of an act for the incorporation of Texas." The
government of Herrera did not take this militant position. It had already initiated steps, encouraged by the British, to recognize
the independence of the Republic of Texas, and although Santa Anna's lame-duck minister in Washington broke diplomatic relations
with the U.S. government immediately after annexation, in August 1845 the Herrera government indicated willingness to resume
relations. Not only was the Herrera government prepared to accept the loss of Texas, but it also hoped to finally rest
the claims question that had plagued U.S.-Mexican affairs since 1825. Britain and France had used force, or the threat of
it, to induce the Mexican government to pay their claims on behalf of their citizens. The United States, however, preferred
to negotiate, and the negotiations had dragged on interminably.
(Right) The Battle of Chapultepec.Battle of Chapultepec during the Mexican-American War,
painting by Carl Nebel. Adolphe Jean-Baptiste Bayot, 1851, "The War Between the United States and Mexico, Illustrated".
Fearing that American patience was running short, Herrera seemed determined
to settle the issue. He requested that the United States send a minister plenipotentiary to Mexico, and President Polk appointed
Slidell's authority, however, may have exceeded Herrera's intentions. Slidell
was authorized to purchase California and New Mexico from Mexico and to settle the Texas
boundary, which was a source of dispute even with the Mexican moderates. While the Republic of Texas
had claimed the Rio Grande as its boundary, the adjacent Mexican state of Tamaulipas claimed the area north of the Rio Grande
to the Nueces River.
By the time Slidell arrived in Mexico in December 1845, the Herrera government
was under intense fire from the Centralists for its moderate foreign policies. The Centralist strategy was to appeal to Mexican
national pride as a means of ousting Herrera. During August 1845, their leader, Mariano Parades y Arrillaga, began to demand
an attack on the United States. When Slidell arrived, Herrera, in an effort to save his government, refused to meet with him.
A few days later (December 14), Parades issued a revolutionary manifesto; he entered Mexico City at the head of an army on
Jan. 2, 1846. Herrera fled, and Parades, who assumed the presidency on January 4, ordered Slidell out of Mexico.
After the failure of the Slidell mission, Polk ordered
Gen. Zachary Taylor to move his army to the mouth of the Rio Grande and to prepare to defend Texas from invasion. Taylor did so,
arriving at the Rio Grande on Mar. 28, 1846. Abolitionists in the United States, who had opposed the annexation of Texas as
a slave state, claimed that the move to the Rio Grande was a hostile and aggressive act by Polk to provoke a war with Mexico
to add new slave territory to the United States.
Whatever Polk's precise intentions were, for the Centralists in Mexico the
annexation of Texas had been sufficient cause for war; they saw no disputed boundary--Mexico owned all of Texas. Before Taylor
had moved to the Rio Grande, Parades had begun mobilizing troops and had reiterated his intention of attacking. On April 4
the new dictator of Mexico ordered the attack on Taylor. When his commander at Matamoros delayed, Parades replaced him, issued
a declaration of war (April 23), and reordered the attack.
List of Principal Mexican-American War Battles
|Mexican War and Battle of Churubusco
|Battle of Churubusco in the Mexican War
||8 May 1846|
|Resaca de la Palma
||9 May 1846|
||21 September 1846|
||22-23 February 1847|
||9-29 March 1847|
||17 April 1847|
||18-20 August 1847|
||20 August 1847|
|Molino del Rey
||8 September 1847|
||13 September 1847|
(Right) "Churubusco." James Walker, 1848 Mexico.
|Mexican-American War Battlefield Map
|US Mexican War Battle Map
Northern Mexican Campaign
|Mexican-American War and Battle of Vera Cruz
|Mexican War and Battle of Vera Cruz
On Apr. 25, 1846, Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and ambushed a detachment
of American dragoons commanded by Capt. Seth B. Thornton. Taylor's report of this ambush reached President Polk on the evening
of May 9, a Saturday. On Monday, May 11, Polk presented his war message to Congress, and on Wednesday, May 13, over the vigorous
opposition of the abolitionists, the U.S. Congress voted to declare war on Mexico. In the meantime two more Mexican attacks
had been made across the Rio Grande at Palo Alto (May 8) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9), and both had been repulsed.
Mexican leaders clearly expected to win these battles as well as to
recover Texas and win the war. Parades spoke grandly of occupying New Orleans
and Mobile. His army of about 32,000 men was four to six times the size of the original U.S. army. Furthermore, Mexican troops
were well armed, disciplined, and, above all, experienced in scores of revolutions.
Parades also counted on logistics. The principal theater of war would be Texas, hundreds of miles from the populous areas
of the United States. Many Centralists believed that abolitionists' objections to the war would demoralize the United States,
and some Centralists believed a Mexican invasion would be supported by a massive slave uprising.
(Right) Bombardment of Veracruz. Battle of Veracruz during the Mexican-American
War. Adolphe Jean-Baptiste Bayot. The War Between the United States and Mexico, Illustrated, 1851.
Thus, the quick defeats at Palo Alto
and Resaca de la Palma surprised and shocked the Mexican leadership. The U.S. victories against a larger, better trained
force were attributed to the unexpected effectiveness of the American light artillery. Parades found it expedient, however,
to lay the blame on his commanding general, and he quickly replaced him. The Mexican garrison evacuated Matamoros, moving
to the south.
Taylor occupied Matamoros on May 18 but then delayed for several months before
moving south. He was apparently waiting for transportation promised him by the U.S. government, though his critics branded
him inept. In July he moved his base up the Rio Grande to Camargo, but it was only in August that Taylor began planning the
attack on Monterrey.
By that time American strength on the Rio Grande had swollen to nearly 20,000
troops, nearly all volunteers. The principal military problem was logistical support of such a quickly expanded force. The
Americans were susceptible to subtropical diseases and found it difficult to maintain sanitary conditions in the camps. Fevers,
dysentery, and general debility were rampant, and the mortality rate from sickness was alarming. A determined Mexican attack
in July or August would have proven disastrous to the Americans.
|Army and Navy Battles of the Mexican War
|Mexican War and US Naval Bombardment. Mexican War Battles were fought on Land and at Sea. LOC.
|US Mexican War History
|General Winfield Scott
The Mexicans did not attack because the Centralist government was collapsing.
Rather than uniting Mexico, the war had given the Federalist faction an opportunity to rebel. Even while Taylor had been camped
on the Nueces in the fall of 1845, a few Federalist leaders had been in contact with him, promising supplies and asking for
assistance in overthrowing Parades. Northern Mexico was almost a Federalist stronghold, and as Taylor moved to the Rio Grande,
he received increasing support from the rebels.
The defeats of the Centralist forces at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma precipitated
open Federalist rebellions throughout Mexico. Major outbreaks at Acapulco and Guadalajara in July were followed by the defection
of the military garrison of Veracruz on August 3 and that of Mexico City on August 4. Mexico was in turmoil.
On July 28, Parades turned the government over to his vice-president and went
into hiding. The Centralists' government fell completely with the resignation of the vice-president on August 6. On August
22 the Federalists solemnly restored the constitution of 1824, and Valentin Gomez Farias, who had been deposed as vice-president
by the Centralists in 1834, assumed temporary control of the government as the nation's only legitimate official.
In the meantime, Santa Anna had returned to Mexico. Having promised President
Polk that he would work to construct a truce, he was allowed to pass through the U.S. naval blockade and land at Veracruz
on August 16. Talk of a truce was forgotten. Perhaps the only leader capable of uniting the nation, he soon received command
of the Mexican army; in December he was elected president by the Mexican Congress but did not formally assume office until
the following March.
Monterrey and Buena Vista
In the meantime, Taylor began his advance on Monterrey. He reached that fortified
town, which had a garrison of more than 10,000 troops, on September 19 and began his attack on the morning of September 21.
With about 2,000 men, Gen. William J. Worth captured the road between Monterrey and Saltillo and by noon was storming Federation
Hill. Six companies of Texas Rangers charged up the hill, seized the enemy
artillery, and turned the cannon on retreating Mexican forces. On the opposite side of the city a diversionary attack penetrated
the town, despite much confusion. On September 22 the Americans rested, but they resumed the attack the next day. After bloody
street-to-street fighting, the Mexican general Pedro de Ampudia requested and was granted a truce. On September 25 he was
permitted to withdraw his forces from the city, and an 8-week armistice was agreed upon. Total Mexican casualties were estimated
at 367. The Americans had 368 wounded and 120 killed.
Taylor was criticized both by the military and by President Polk for agreeing
to an armistice. Taylor therefore informed Santa Anna, who had assumed command of the Mexican forces at San Luis Potosi, that
the armistice would be terminated early. On November 16 he occupied Saltillo. His position was strengthened by an independent
force under Gen. John E. Wood, which took Parras, to the west of Monterrey, on December 5.
In January 1847, Santa Anna moved north with about 20,000 men to dislodge
Taylor. Dispatches captured by the Mexicans had revealed that most of Taylor's forces were being withdrawn to take part in
Gen. Winfield Scott's proposed landing at Veracruz. Word of Santa Anna's approach reached Taylor on February 21, and although
outnumbered almost three-to-one, he took up a position at the hacienda of Buena Vista, a few miles from Saltillo. The Mexican
attack began on February 22, when troops led by Ampudia gained an advantage and forced the Americans to abandon important
defensive positions. The next morning the main Mexican force nearly overcame the U.S. defense. However, a dramatic charge
led by Col. Jefferson Davis about noon and a determined artillery advance under Capt. Braxton Bragg finally saved the day
for the Americans. Their casualties numbered about 700, but the Mexican losses were about 1,800. Santa Anna withdrew that
night and moved south to intercept Scott's invasionary force. No further fighting occurred in northern Mexico, but Taylor
remained in command of a small force there until he returned to the United States in November 1847.
|Mexican-American War Map of Battles
|US Mexican War Battlefield Map
|Mexican War and Battle of San Jacinto
|Battle of San Jacinto in Mexican-American War
Central Mexican Campaign
(Right) Artistic interpretation of the Battle of San Jacinto. Henry
Arthur McArdle, 1895. Courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission. NPS.
The decisive campaign of the war was Scott's advance from Veracruz to Mexico
City. Scott's expedition began at a staging area at the mouth of the Rio Grande in February 1847. He assembled an army of
approximately 12,000, which was transported by sea to a beach about 5 km (3 mi) south of Veracruz. Landing on March 10-11,
it had surrounded the city by March 15. A combined naval and land attack began on March 22. Heavy shelling from navy guns
forced the almost impregnable town to surrender on March 28.
|Mexican-American War and Battle of Cerro Gordo
|6th U.S. Infantry at the Battle of Cerro Gordo in the Mexican-American War
Almost immediately Scott began the advance toward Mexico City. Only sporadic
resistance was encountered until his army reached the village of Cerro Gordo about 80 km (50 mi) inland. There, in a narrow
defile, Santa Anna prepared to turn back the Americans. The attack on Cerro Gordo was led by units under William J. Worth
on April 18. The U.S. engineers, who included Robert E. Lee, George B. McClellan, Joseph E. Johnston, and P. G. T. Beauregard,
found a trail that enabled the Americans to envelop and rout Santa Anna's forces. The Mexicans lost 1,000 men in casualties
and another 3,000 as prisoners. The Americans had 64 killed and 353 wounded.
Pursuit was impossible, but Worth moved up the road to occupy the venerable
Perote Castle on April 22. Scott and the main army had entered Jalapa on April 19. There the advance stopped for a month.
Scott reported over 1,000 men bedridden in Veracruz and another 1,000 sick at Jalapa.
On May 14-15, Worth and John A. Quitman moved into Puebla, about 80 km (50
mi) closer to Mexico City. They expected heavy resistance because of Santa Anna's reported presence there. However, the town's
leaders and the priests had decided to open Puebla to the Americans. Santa Anna had only about 2,000 cavalry, which the Americans
easily routed. Another 1,000 Americans fell sick at Puebla, apparently from the local water supply. By July 15, with recent
augmentations, Scott's forces numbered about 14,000. However, over 3,000 were sick or convalescent; and the sickness rate
showed no sign of decreasing.
Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec
During June and July, Santa Anna frantically prepared to defend Mexico City.
On August 7, Scott began his advance from Puebla, following a route over lava beds and rough land to the south of Lake Chalco
that Santa Anna had left relatively unprotected. The first heavy fighting occurred on August 19-20 at Contreras, outside Mexico
City, where Mexican losses were estimated at 700 and American casualties at 60. Santa Anna fell back about 8 km (5 mi) to
Churubusco, where he took up a defensive position in a fortified convent. Advancing under extremely heavy fire on August 20,
Scott's men finally forced the convent's surrender, although Santa Anna and much of his command escaped. Mexican losses were
estimated at more than 4,000 killed and wounded and more than 2,500 prisoners; by contrast, American losses were slightly
more than 1,000.
Scott might have moved promptly into the capital. Instead he granted (August
24) the armistice of Tacubaya to permit the negotiation of a peace treaty. Santa Anna used the time to muster his forces and
prepare a final defense of the city. Fighting was renewed on September 7-8 at Molino del Rey, where the Americans forced the
Mexican position but lost nearly 800 soldiers. The Mexican losses totaled about 2,700. The final battle for Mexico City took
place at the fortified hill of Chapultepec. American artillery bombardment on September 12 was followed the next day by an
infantry assault. The citadel was heroically defended by cadets from the Mexican Military College, but they were forced to
surrender before noon. American troops entered Mexico City that afternoon, and shortly after midnight Santa Anna evacuated
The war was over. In just over five months, Winfield Scott had done what many
had considered impossible. The duke of Wellington wrote, "His campaign was unsurpassed in military annals." On September 16,
Santa Anna resigned the Mexican presidency. Forced to resign his command also (October 7), he fled the country. The new acting
president, Pedro Maria Anaya, began negotiations with the American peace commissioner Nicholas Trist (1800-74) in November.
Trist had just been recalled to Washington, but he decided to negotiate without credentials.
Campaigns in the American
While the crucial fighting was taking place in Mexico, various U.S. expeditions
affected the conquest of Mexico's territories in the American Southwest.
|US Forces Enter Mexico during Mexican War
|Gen. Scott's Entrance into Mexico, C. Nebel, ca. 1855
Kearny in New Mexico
Immediately after the declaration of war, Brigadier General Stephen Watts
Kearny, stationed at Fort Leavenworth, was ordered to occupy New Mexico and California. With an army consisting largely of
Missouri volunteers and numbering fewer than 2,000 (though gloriously labeled the Army of the West), he moved down the Santa
Fe Trail into New Mexico in July 1846. The Mexican governor was unable to rally any resistance, and Kearny entered Santa Fe
unopposed on Aug. 18, 1846. The conquest of New Mexico had, in fact, taken place through peaceful trade and commerce in the
Kearny established a civil government with Charles Bent, a Santa Fe trader
from Missouri, as governor. He then divided his command into three groups: one, under Sterling Price, was to occupy New Mexico;
a second, under Alexander William Doniphan, was ordered to capture Chihuahua; the third, under his own command, headed for
California. Price faced unrest and then rebellion in New Mexico in January 1847. Bent was murdered at his home in Taos. Price
fought three engagements with rebels, many of whom were Pueblo Indians, and by mid-February had the revolt under control.
Doniphan and the Missouri Volunteers struggled down the Rio Grande, suffering
many privations along the route, to reach the vicinity of present El Paso, Tex., late in December 1846. On Christmas Day at
El Brazito they were attacked by a small detachment of Mexicans who were easily routed. The Missourians rested at Paso del
Norte (present Ciudad Juarez) until Feb. 8, 1847, when the march to Chihuahua City began. On February 28 the Americans won
a decisive victory at the crossing of the Sacramento River just outside Chihuahua. Their casualties consisted of one killed
and five wounded; Mexican losses were about 300 dead and another 300 wounded. In May, Doniphan took his command eastward to
Saltillo to join Taylor's forces.
Kearny set out for California on September 25 with only 300 dragoons. At Socorro,
N. Mex., they met the famous guide Kit Carson, who was returning from California. Learning that the conquest of California
was virtually complete, Kearny sent 200 of his men back to Santa Fe and, led by Carson, continued to California.
Conquest of California
The American settlers in California had revolted against Mexican rule and
established (June 1846) the Bear Flag Republic, under John C. Fremont, before news of the war reached them. On July 2, U.S.
Commodore John Drake Sloat landed at Monterey. He proclaimed U.S. jurisdiction on July 7 and two days later occupied San Francisco.
However, California was by no means under U.S. control. Mexican authority in California was divided between two rivals, Pio
Pico in Los Angeles and Jose Castro in Monterey. Following the American landing, Castro headed south, apparently to attempt
reconciliation with Pico and resistance to the United States. However, Commodore Robert Stockton, who replaced Sloat on July
23, sailed down the coast and landed troops under Fremont at San Diego and others near Los Angeles. Pico and Castro fled on
Heavy-handed martial law administration precipitated a revolt in southern
California in September. Led by Jose Maria Flores, the rebels had expelled the Americans from Los Angeles and San Diego by
the end of October. On Dec. 6, 1846, Kearny, en route to San Diego, met the rebels in an indecisive action at the Battle of
San Pascual. Joining Stockton, who had arrived at San Diego, Kearny defeated a rebel band near Los Angeles on the San Gabriel
River on Jan. 8-9, 1847. On January 13, Fremont received the final surrender of the rebels and signed the Treaty of Cahuenga.
At the end of the month another American expedition, "half naked and half fed," reached San Diego. The remnant of 500 Mormon
volunteers under Phillip St. George Cooke, it had marched from Utah to Sante Fe and across scorching deserts in southern New
Mexico and Arizona.
After a bitter dispute among Stockton, Fremont, and Kearny, the last established
a provisional government in California. With California secure, the U.S. Navy attempted the conquest of Mexican ports on the
Pacific, capturing Mazatlan (Nov. 11, 1847), Guaymas (Nov. 17, 1847), and San Blas (Jan. 12, 1848).
|Mexican War and Occupation of Mexico City Map
|General Scott's route and capture of Mexico City Map
Despite the objections of the abolitionists, the war received enthusiastic support in all sections of the United States and was fought almost entirely by volunteers.
The army swelled from just some 6,000 to over 115,000. Of this total approximately 1.5 percent were killed in the fighting,
and nearly 10 percent died of disease; another 12 percent were wounded or discharged because of disease or both. For years
afterward, Mexican War veterans continued to suffer from the debilitating diseases contracted during the campaigns. The casualty
rate was thus easily over 25 percent for the 17 months of the war; the total casualties may have reached 35-40 percent if
later injury- and disease-related deaths are added. In this respect the war was the most disastrous in American military history.
During the war political quarrels arose regarding the disposition of conquered
Mexico. A strong "All-Mexico" movement urged annexation of the entire territory. Abolitionists opposed that position and fought
for the exclusion of slavery from any territory absorbed by the United States. In 1847 the House of Representatives passed
the Wilmot Proviso, stipulating that none of the territory acquired should be open to slavery. The Senate avoided the issue,
and a late attempt to add it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was defeated.
|Mexican-American War Battles and Battlefields Map
|Mexican-American War Battles and Principal Events
of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, also called the Mexican Cession, was the unsatisfactory result of Nicholas Trist's unauthorized negotiations to officially end the Mexican-American
War. It was reluctantly approved by the U.S. Senate on March 10, 1848, and ratified by the Mexican Congress on May 25. The
Compromise of 1850, which was designed to maintain a balance between free and slave states, was passed in an attempt
to address the expansion of slavery in the immense territory that the United States received from Mexico under the articles
of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. As a result of its victory, the U.S.
had acquired an unfathomable 55% of the territory of Mexico, but the 1850 Compromise had failed because, although
there were 15 free and 15 slave states prior to the Mexican War, California entered the Union as a free state in 1850,
followed by three additional free states by 1861. No slave states were added during that
time, and the balance of power, politically and economically, now favored the slave states, which served only to fuel
sectionalism and exacerbate tensions between the North and South, pressing the nation closer toward the American Civil
War. What the compromise had intended to accomplish, never materialized, and the nation was at Civil War in 1861.
Mexico's cession of California
and New Mexico and its recognition of U.S. sovereignty over all Texas north
of the Rio Grande formalized the addition of 3.1 million sq km (1.2 million sq mi) of territory to the United States. In return
the United States agreed to pay $15 million and assumed the claims of its citizens against Mexico. A final territorial adjustment
between Mexico and the United States was made by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853.
(Bibliography and related reading below.)
Reading: Mexican War and its Battles, Campaigns, and Leaders
K. Jack, The Mexican War (1974); Bill, Alfred H., Rehearsal for Conflict: The War with Mexico, 1846-1848 (1945; repr. 1970);
Connor, Seymour V., and Faulk, Odie B., North America Divided: The Mexican War, 1846-1848 (1971); Dufour, Charles L., The
Mexican War: A Compact History (1968); Eisenhower, John S. D., So Far from God: The U. S. War with Mexico, 1846-48 (1989;
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