Union Order of Battle: Battle of Cold Harbor

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UNION UNITS AT TOTOPOTOMOY
CREEK AND COLD HARBOR MAY 27-JUNE 12, 1864

CONNECTICUT
  • Infantry: 8th, 11th, 14th, 21st Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 1st Regiment.
  • Artillery, Heavy: 2nd Regiment.
DELAWARE
  • Infantry: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Regiments.
ILLINOIS
  • Cavalry: 8th Regiment.
INDIANA
  • Infantry: 7th, 13th, 14th, 19th, 20th Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 3rd Regiment.
MAINE
  • Infantry: 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 20th, 31st, 32nd Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 1st Regiment.
  • Artillery, Field: 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th Batteries.
MARYLAND
  • Infantry: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th Regiments; Purnell Legion.
MASSACHUSETTS
  • Infantry: 1st, 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 25th, 27th, 28th, 29th, 32nd, 35th, 36th, 37th, 39th, 40th, 56th, 57th, 58th, 59th Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 1st Regiment.
  • Artillery, Heavy: 1st Regiment.
  • Artillery, Field: 1st, 3rd, 5th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 14th Batteries.
MICHIGAN
  • Infantry: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 16th, 17th, 20th, 24th, 26th, 27th Regiments; 1st Sharpshooters.
  • Cavalry: 1st, 5th, 6th, 7th Regiments.
MINNESOTA
  • Infantry: 2nd Regiment.
NEW HAMPSHIRE
  • Infantry : 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th Regiments.
NEW JERSEY
  • Infantry: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 1st, 3rd Regiments.
NEW YORK
  • Infantry: 3rd, 7th, 10th, 12th, 34th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 44th, 46th, 47th, 48th, 49th, 51st, 57th, 59th, 61st, 62nd, 63rd, 64th, 65th, 66th, 67th, 69th, 70th, 71st, 72nd, 73rd, 74th, 76th, 77th, 80th, 82nd, 83rd, 86th, 88th, 89th, 92nd, 93rd, 94th, 95th, 96th, 97th, 98th, 104th, 106th, 108th, 109th, 111th, 112th, 115th, 117th, 118th, 120th, 121st, 122nd, 124th, 125th, 126th, 139th, 140th, 142nd, 146th, 147th, 148th, 151st, 152nd, 155th, 164th, 169th, 170th, 182nd Regiments; 1st Bn. Sharpshooters.
  • Cavalry: 1st, 2nd, 2nd Mounted Rifles (dismounted), 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, 10th, 19th, 24th (dismounted) Regiments; Oneida Cav.
  • Artillery, Heavy: 2nd, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th Regiments.
  • Artillery, Field: 1st, 3rd, 4th, 11th, 12th, 15th, 19th, 27th, 34th Batteries; 15th Horse Artillery.
OHIO
  • Infantry: 4th, 8th, 60th, 110th, 122nd, 126th Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 2nd, 6th Regiments.
  • Artillery, Field: 1st Regiment, Battery H.
PENNSYLVANIA
  • Infantry: 11th, 23rd, 45th, 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, 53rd, 55th, 56th, 57th, 58th, 61st, 62nd, 63rd, 67th, 68th, 69th, 71st, 72nd, 76th, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 87th, 88th, 90th, 91st, 93rd, 95th, 96th, 97th, 99th, 99th, 100th, 102nd, 105th, 106th, 107th, 110th, 114th, 115th, 116th, 118th, 119th, 121st, 138th, 139th, 140th, 141st, 142nd, 143rd, 145th, 148th, 149th, 150th, 155th, 183rd, 184th 188th, 190th, 191st Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 13th, 16th, 18th Regiments.
  • Artillery, Heavy: 2nd Provisional Regiment.
  • Artillery, Field: 1st Regiment.
RHODE ISLAND
  • Infantry: 2nd, 7th Regiments.
  • Artillery, Field: 1st Regiment.
VERMONT
  • Infantry: 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 10th, 11th, 17th Regiments.
  • Cavalry; 1st Regiment.
  • Artillery Heavy: 1st Regiment.
  • Artillery, Field: 3rd Battery.
WEST VIRGINIA
  • Infantry: 7th Regiment.
WISCONSIN
  • Infantry: 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 36th Regiments.
U.S. COLORED TROOPS
  • Infantry: 19th, 23rd, 27th, 30th, 31st, 39th, 43rd Regiments.
U.S. REGULARS
  • Infantry: 2nd, 4th, 8th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 14th, 17th Regiments.
  • Cavalry: 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th Regiments.
  • Artillery, Field: 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th Regiments; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Horse Artillery.
  • Engineers: Engineer Battalion.
U.S. VOLUNTEERS
  • Infantry: 1st, 2nd, U.S. Sharpshooters.

General Grant at Battle of Cold Harbor
Battle of Cold Harbor.gif
Cold Harbor Battlefield

General Ulysses S. Grant at Cold Harbor
(Photographed by Mathew Brady in 1864: Courtesy of the National Archives)

Source: Richmond National Battlefield Park

Recommended Reading: Not War But Murder: Cold Harbor 1864. Review From Library Journal: On June 3, 1864, the Union Second, Sixth, and Eighteenth Corps assaulted Confederate breastworks at Cold Harbor outside Richmond, VA. The resulting bloodbath amounted to U.S. Grant's worst defeat and "Bobby" Lee's final great victory. In his latest book, native Virginian and Baltimore Sun correspondent Furgurson (Chancellorsville, 1863) vividly retells the well-known story of how the friction between Grant and his insecure direct subordinate, George Meade, poisoned the Army of the Potomac's whole chain of command. Continued below…

By contrast, he depicts Lee as a commander beset by poor health and impossible logistical problems who brilliantly deployed his meager forces and soundly thrashed his overconfident adversary, thereby saving the rebel capital and extending an unwinnable war by nearly a year. The book is rich in word pictures and engaging anecdotes. Furgurson considers the wounded that were left to suffer with the dead between the lines while Lee and Grant quibble over protocols of recovery; the disastrous affect of poor maps and impassable terrain on the Federal assault; and Grant's immediate need to bring Lincoln a battlefield victory before the 1864 presidential election. Furgurson's contribution is his evocative retelling of a great American military tragedy.

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Recommended Reading: Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26-June 3, 1864, by Gordon C. Rhea (Hardcover). Description: In his gripping volume on the spring 1864 Overland campaign--which pitted Ulysses S. Grant against Robert E. Lee for the first time in the Civil War--Gordon Rhea vividly re-creates the battles and maneuvers from the North Anna stalemate through the Cold Harbor offensive. Rhea's tenacious research elicits stunning new facts from the records of a phase oddly ignored or mythologized by historians. The Cold Harbor of these pages differs sharply from the Cold Harbor of popular lore. We see Grant, in one of his most brilliant moves, pull his army across the North Anna River and steal a march on Lee. In response, Lee sets up a strong defensive line along Totopotomoy Creek, and the battles spark across woods and fields northeast of Richmond. Continued below…

Their back to the Chickahominy River and on their last legs, the rebel troops defiantly face an army-wide assault ordered by Grant that extends over three hellish days. Rhea gives a surprising new interpretation of the famous battle that left seven thousand Union casualties and only fifteen hundred Confederate dead or wounded. Here, Grant is not a callous butcher, and Lee does not wage a perfect fight. Every imaginable primary source has been exhausted to unravel the strategies, mistakes, gambles, and problems with subordinates that preoccupied two exquisitely matched minds. In COLD HARBOR, Rhea separates fact from fiction in a charged, evocative narrative. He leaves readers under a moonless sky, Grant pondering the eastward course of the James River fifteen miles south of the encamped armies. About the Author: Gordon Rhea is the author of three previous books, a winner of the Fletcher Pratt Literary Award, a frequent lecturer throughout the country on military history, and a practicing attorney.

 

Recommended Reading: Bloody Roads South: The Wilderness to Cold Harbor, May-June 1864, by Noah Andre Trudeau. Description: "Nobody has brought together in one volume so many eyewitness accounts from both sides."-Civil War History Winner of the Fletcher Pratt Award. In this authoritative chronicle of the great 1864 Overland Campaign in Virginia, Noah Andre Trudeau vividly re-creates the brutal forty days that marked the beginning of the end of the Civil War. In riveting detail Trudeau traces the carnage from the initial battles in Virginia's Wilderness to the gruesome hand-to-hand combat at Spotsylvania's "Bloody Angle," to the ingenious trap laid by Lee at the North Anna River, to the killing ground of Cold Harbor. Through fascinating eyewitness accounts, he relates the human stories behind this epic saga. Continued below…

Common soldiers struggle to find the words to describe the agony of their comrades, incredible tales of individual valor, their own mortality. Also recounting their experiences are the women who nursed these soldiers and black troops who were getting their first taste of battle. The raw vitality of battle sketches by Edwin Forbes and Alfred R. Waud complement the words of the participants. PRAISE FOR THE BOOK: "Bloody Roads South is a powerful and eloquent narrative of the costliest, most violent campaign of the Civil War. Grant vs. Lee in the Wilderness, at Spotsylvania, and at Cold Harbor has never been told better."-Stephen W. Sears, author of The Landscape Turned Red. About the Author: Noah Andre Trudeau is an executive producer for cultural programs at National Public Radio in Washington, D.C. He is the author of Out of the Storm: The End of the Civil War, April-June 1865 and The Last Citadel: Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864-April 1865.

 

Recommended Reading: Trench Warfare under Grant and Lee: Field Fortifications in the Overland Campaign (Civil War America) (Hardcover) (The University of North Carolina Press) (September 5, 2007). Description: In the study of field fortifications in the Civil War that began with Field Armies and Fortifications in the Civil War, Hess turns to the 1864 Overland campaign to cover battles from the Wilderness to Cold Harbor. Continued below...

Drawing on meticulous research in primary sources and careful examination of trench remnants at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, and Bermuda Hundred, Hess describes Union and Confederate earthworks and how Grant and Lee used them in this new era of field entrenchments.

 

Recommended Reading: The Battlefield of Cold Harbor, Hanover County, Virginia, 1864 (Map). Review: The site of Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia's last Civil War Victory is one of astonishment, battlefield courage, and horrific carnage… This work includes the most complete, accurate and detailed maps of the battle of Cold Harbor ever published. Watercolor and colored pencil map showing farms, mills, entrenchments, watercourses, woods, fields and residences are all meticulously detailed and scaled to perfection. Continued below...

The reverse side includes an account of Union mapping at Cold Harbor; full color reproduction of the Army of the Potomac’s Overland Campaign theater map; and photographs of two prominent Union topographical engineers, W. H. Paine and W.A. Roebling. A welcome addition to every Civil War buff’s library as well as the individual that appreciates detailed topographical maps. FIVE STARS.

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