Battle of Cowpens
The Battle of Cowpens (January 17, 1781) was a decisive victory by American
Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It
was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British.
|Battle of Cowpens Map
|Cowpens Battlefield Map
(Battle of Cowpens 17 January 1781. Right flank (cavalry) of Lt. Col.William
Washington and (left flank) the militia returned to enfilade.)
|Battle of Cowpens Map
|Cowpens Revolutionary War Map
The Battle of Cowpens1, January 17, 1781,
took place in the latter part of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution and of the Revolution itself. It became
known as the turning point of the war in the South, part of a chain of events leading to Patriot victory at Yorktown2
The Cowpens victory was one over a crack British regular army3 and brought together strong armies
and leaders who made their mark on history.
From the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge4 on, the
British had made early and mostly futile efforts in the South, including a failed naval expedition to take Charleston in 1776.
Such victories boosted Patriot morale and blunted British efforts, but, by 1779-80, with stalemate in the North, British strategists
again looked south. They came south for a number of reasons, primarily to assist Southern Loyalists5
and help them regain control of colonial governments, and then push north, to crush the rebellion6.
They estimated that many of the population would rally to the Crown.
In 1779-80, British redcoats indeed came South en masse, capturing
first, Savannah7 and then Charleston8 and Camden
8A in South Carolina, in the process, defeating and capturing much of the Southern Continental
Army9. Such victories gave the British confidence they would soon control the entire South, that
Loyalists would flock to their cause. Conquering these population centers, however, gave the British a false sense of victory
they didn’t count on so much opposition in the backcountry10. Conflict in the backcountry,
to their rear, turned out to be their Achilles’ heel.
The Southern Campaign, especially in the backcountry, was essentially a civil
war as the colonial population split between Patriot and Loyalist. Conflict came, often pitting neighbor against neighbor
and re-igniting old feuds and animosities. Those of both sides organized militia, often engaging each other. The countryside
was devastated, and raids and reprisals were the order of the day.
Into this conflict, General George Washington sent the very capable Nathanael
Greene to take command of the Southern army. Against military custom, Greene, just two weeks into his command, split his army,
sending General Daniel Morgan southwest of the Catawba River to cut supply lines and hamper British operations in the backcountry,
and, in doing so "spirit up the people". General Cornwallis, British commander in the South, countered Greene’s move
by sending Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton to block Morgan’s actions. Tarleton was only twenty-six, but he was
an able commander, both feared and hated – hated especially for his victory at the Waxhaws.11
There, Tarleton was said to have continued the fight against remnants of the Continental Army trying to surrender. His refusal,
tradition says, of offering no quarter, led to the derisive term "Tarleton’s Quarter".
These events set the stage for the Battle of Cowpens. On January 12, 1781,
Tarleton's scouts located Morgan’s army at Grindal’s Shoals on the Pacolet River12
in South Carolina’s backcountry and thus began an aggressive pursuit. Tarleton, fretting about heavy rains and flooded
rivers, gained ground as his army proceeded toward the flood-swollen Pacolet. As Tarleton grew closer, Morgan retreated north
to Burr’s Mill on Thicketty Creek.13 On January 16, with Tarleton reported to have crossed
the Pacolet and much closer than expected, Morgan and his army made a hasty retreat, so quickly as to leave their breakfast
behind. Soon, he intersected with and traveled west on the Green River Road. Here, with the flood-swollen Broad River14
six miles to his back, Morgan decided to make a stand at the Cowpens, a well-known crossroads and frontier pasturing ground.
|American Revolutionary War Map
|Phases of Battle of Cowpens during the Revolutionary War
(American Skirmishers, Militia, and Continentals halt British advance.)
The term "cowpens"15, endemic to such South Carolina
pastureland and associated early cattle industry, would be etched in history. The field itself was some 500 yards long and
just as wide, a park-like setting dotted with trees, but devoid of undergrowth, having been kept clear by cattle grazing in
the spring on native grasses and peavine16.
There was forage17 at the Cowpens for horses,
and evidence of free-ranging cattle for food. Morgan, too, since he had learned of Tarleton’s pursuit, had spread the
word for militia18 units to rendezvous at the Cowpens. Many knew the geography some were Overmountain
men who had camped at the Cowpens on their journey to the Battle of Kings Mountain.19 Camp was made in a swale between two small hills, and through the night Andrew Pickens’
militia drifted into camp. Morgan moved among the campfires and offered encouragement; his speeches to militia and Continentals
alike were command performances. He spoke emotionally of past battles, talked of the battle plan, and lashed out against the
British. His words were especially effective with the militia the "Old Waggoner"20 of French and
Indian War days and the hero of Saratoga21, spoke their language. He knew how to motivate them
even proposing a competition of bravery between Georgia and Carolina units. By the time he was through, one soldier observed
that the army was "in good spirits and very willing to fight". But, as one observed, Morgan hardly slept a wink that night.
Dawn at the Cowpens on January 17, 1781, was clear and bitterly cold. Morgan,
his scouts bearing news of Tarleton’s approach, moved among his men, shouting, "Boys, get up! Benny's22 coming! Tarleton, playing catch up, and having marched his army
since two in the morning, ordered formation on the Green River Road for the attack. His aggressive style was made even now
more urgent, since there were rumors of Overmountain men on the way, reminiscent of events at Kings Mountain. Yet he was confident
of victory: he reasoned he had Morgan hemmed in by the Broad, and the undulating park-like terrain was ideal for his dragoons23.
He thought Morgan must be desperate, indeed, to have stopped at such a place. Perhaps Morgan saw it differently: in some past
battles, Patriot militia had fled in face of fearsome bayonet charges – but now the Broad at Morgan’s back could
prevent such a retreat. In reality, though, Morgan had no choice – to cross the flood-swollen Broad risked having his
army cut down by the feared and fast-traveling Tarleton.
Tarleton pressed the attack head on, his line extending across the meadow,
his artillery in the middle, and fifty Dragoons on each side. It was as if Morgan knew he would make a frontal assault –
it was his style of fighting. To face Tarleton, he organized his troops into three lines. First, out front and hiding behind
trees were selected sharpshooters. At the onset of battle they picked off numbers of Tarleton’s Dragoons, traditionally
listed as fifteen24, shooting especially at officers, and warding off an attempt to gain initial
supremacy. With the Dragoons in retreat, and their initial part completed, the sharpshooters retreated 150 yards or more back
to join the second line, the militia commanded by Andrew Pickens. Morgan used the militia well, asking them to get off two
volleys and promised their retreat to the third line made up of John Eager Howard's25 Continentals,
again close to 150 yards back. Some of the militia indeed got off two volleys as the British neared, but, as they retreated
and reached supposed safety behind the Continental line, Tarleton sent his feared Dragoons after them. As the militia dodged
behind trees and parried saber slashes with their rifles, William Washington's26 Patriot cavalry thundered onto the field of battle, seemingly,
out of nowhere. The surprised British Dragoons, already scattered and sensing a rout, were overwhelmed, and according to historian
Babits, lost eighteen men in the clash. As they fled the field, infantry on both sides fired volley after volley. The British
advanced in a trot, with beating drums, the shrill sounds of fifes, and shouts of halloo. Morgan, in response, cheering his
men on, said to give them the Indian halloo back. Riding to the front, he rallied the militia, crying out, "form, form, my
brave fellows! Old Morgan was never beaten!"
Now Tarleton’s 71st Highlanders27, held
in reserve, entered the charge toward the Continental line, the wild wail of bagpipes adding to the noise and confusion. A
John Eager Howard order for the right flank to face slightly right to counter a charge from that direction, was, in the noise
of battle, misunderstood as a call to retreat. As other companies along the line followed suite, Morgan rode up to ask Howard
if he were beaten. As Howard pointed to the unbroken ranks and the orderly retreat and assured him they were not, Morgan spurred
his horse on and ordered the retreating units to face about, and then, on order, fire in unison. The firing took a heavy toll
on the British, who, by that time had sensed victory and had broken ranks in a wild charge. This event and a fierce Patriot
bayonet charge in return broke the British charge and turned the tide of battle. The re-formed militia and cavalry re-entered
the battle, leading to double envelopment28 of the British, perfectly timed. British infantry
began surrendering en masse.
Tarleton and some of his army fought valiantly on; others refused his orders
and fled the field. Finally, Tarleton, himself, saw the futility of continued battle, and with a handful of his men, fled
from whence he came, down the Green River Road. In one of the most dramatic moments of the battle, William Washington, racing
ahead of his cavalry, dueled hand-to-hand with Tarleton and two of his officers. Washington’s life was saved only when
his young bugler29 fired his pistol at an Englishman with raised saber. Tarleton and his remaining
forces galloped away to Cornwallis’ camp. Stragglers from the battle were overtaken, but Tarleton escaped to tell the
awful news to Cornwallis.
The battle was over in less than an hour. It was a complete victory for the
Patriot force. British losses were staggering: 110 dead, over 200 wounded and 500 captured. Morgan lost only 12 killed and
60 wounded, a count he received from those reporting directly to him.
Knowing Cornwallis would come after him, Morgan saw to it that the dead were
buried – the legend says in wolf pits -- and headed north with his army. Crossing the Broad at Island Ford30,
he proceeded to Gilbert Town31, and, yet burdened as he was by the prisoners, pressed swiftly
northeastward toward the Catawba River, and some amount of safety. The prisoners were taken via Salisbury32
on to Winchester, Virginia. Soon Morgan and Greene reunited and conferred, Morgan wanting to seek protection in the mountains
and Greene wanting to march north to Virginia for supplies. Greene won the point, gently reminding Morgan that he was in command.
Soon after Morgan retired from his duty because of ill health— rheumatism, and recurring bouts of malarial fever.
Now it was Greene and his army on the move north. Cornwallis, distressed by
the news from Cowpens, and wondering aloud how such an interior force could defeat Tarleton's crack troops, indeed came after
him. Now it was a race for the Dan River33 on the Virginia line, Cornwallis having burned his
baggage34 and swiftly pursuing Greene. Cornwallis was subsequently delayed by Patriot units stationed
at Catawba River35 crossings. Greene won the race, and, in doing so, believed he had Cornwallis
where he wanted -- far from urban supply centers and short of food. Returning to Guilford Courthouse36,
he fought Cornwallis' army employing with some success, Morgan's tactics at Cowpens. At battle's end, the British were technically
the winners as Greene's forces retreated. If it could be called a victory, it was a costly one: Five hundred British lay dead
or wounded. When the news of the battle reached London, a member of the House of Commons said, "Another such victory would
ruin the British army". Perhaps the army was already ruined, and Greene's strategy of attrition was working.
Soon, Greene's strategy was evident: Cornwallis and his weary army gave up
on the Carolinas and moved on to Virginia. On October 18, 1781, the British army surrendered at Yorktown. Cowpens, in its
part in the Revolution, was a surprising victory and a turning point that changed the psychology of the entire war. Now, there
was revenge – the Patriot rallying cry Tarleton's Quarter37.
Morgan's unorthodox but tactical masterpiece had indeed "spirited up the people", not just those of the backcountry Carolinas,
but those in all the colonies. In the process, he gave Tarleton and the British a "devil of a whipping". Continued below...
Feeding the Armies
In the Revolution, Patriot and British armies often marched and fought
on empty stomachs as plans for obtaining food went awry. This was particularly true in the backcountry where food was scarce.
Examples of foraging for food and food-related problems abound. Earlier in the war, General Gates and his Southern Continentals,
on the march to Camden, subsisted on apples, peaches, and half-ripened corn. James Collins, writing about backcountry campaigns
in his Autobiography of a Revolutionary Soldier, told of eating turnips and parched corn. In one poignant example,
Battle of Cowpen's participant John Martin, recuperating from wounds in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, and beyond assistance
of the army, reported the death of his horse because he lacked money to purchase forage. In another instance, Cornwallis,
because his army was so dead tired and hungry, chose not to pursue General Greene in the aftermath of the Battle of Guilford
Courthouse. Up in Virginia, Samuel McCune was employed to drive cattle from Augusta County to Yorktown. Throughout the southern
theater of war, scouting parties on both sides would scour the country in every direction in search of food.
At Cowpens, Daniel Morgan worried about obtaining food for his men - the area
around the Pacolet River had been plundered and fought over so much, there was little to requisition. In addition, he had
horses to feed. Each militiaman had brought a horse, in addition to those of the cavalry, making the total over 450. Perhaps
that was part of Morgan's plan to stop at Cowpens - there should be some grass for the horses, even in winter, and, possibly
free-ranging calves could be found and killed for beef. Beef was indeed available: James Turner, a Spartanburg District resident
and participant in the battle, butchered beef to feed Morgan's army before and after the battle. It was reported that militia
groups constantly left camp to hunt for forage. Such were the realities of feeding the armies.
Scott Withrow, Park Ranger, National Park Service
(Glossary and bibliography listed at bottom of page)
Recommended Viewing: The History Channel Presents
The Revolution (A&E) (600 minutes).
Review: They came of age in a new world amid intoxicating and innovative ideas about human and civil rights
diverse economic systems and self-government. In a few short years these men and women would transform themselves into architects
of the future through the building of a new nation – “a nation unlike any before.” From the roots of the
rebellion and the signing of the Declaration of Independence to victory on the battlefield at Yorktown and the adoption of The United
States Constitution, THE REVOLUTION tells the remarkable story of this pivotal era in history. Venturing beyond the conventional
list of generals and politicians, THE HISTORY CHANNEL® introduces the full range of individuals who helped shape this great
conflict including some of the war’s most influential unsung heroes. Continued below...
cinematic recreations intimate biographical investigations and provocative political military and economic analysis the historic
ideas and themes that transformed treasonous acts against the British into noble acts of courage both on and off the battlefield
come to life in this dramatic and captivating program. This TEN HOUR DVD Features: History in the Making: The Revolution Behind-the-Scenes
Featurette; Interactive Menus; Scene Selections.
Recommended Reading: A Devil of a Whipping: The Battle of Cowpens. Description: It's easy to forget
that the British won most of the battles during the American Revolution. The Americans certainly carried the day at Saratoga and Yorktown, but they were beaten again and again by their
enemy elsewhere--and often badly. So it's especially odd that the Battle of Cowpens, fought in South Carolina on January 17, 1781, isn't better remembered in American imagination. As
author Lawrence E. Babits shows, Cowpens was the Continental troops' greatest tactical moment--and it marked a crucial turning
point in the war. Continued below...
The fight itself
was fairly brief, and the outcome lopsided--it was "a devil of a whipping," as American leader Daniel Morgan said at the time.
Babits provides a richly detailed account of the battle, including an especially good overview of the weapons and tactics
used by troops of the time. An archaeologist by training, Babits approaches Cowpens with the familiar meticulousness of his
profession; this is an important piece of scholarship on the military history of the American Revolution.
Viewing: Cowpens: The Battle Remembered (DVD). Description:
A Tactical Masterpiece of the Revolutionary War. On January 17th, 1781 at the Battle of Cowpens, Brigadier General Daniel
Morgan changed the course of the Revolutionary War with his resounding victory over Lt. Colonel “Bloody” Banastre
Tarleton’s British redcoats. Cowpens: A Battle Remembered depicts this dramatic conflict through the remembrances of
one American militiaman who fought for Morgan. This historic event is commemorated today at Cowpens National Battlefield in
Reading: Battles Of The Revolutionary War: 1775-1781 (Major Battles and
Campaigns Series). Description: The Americans did not simply outlast the British in the Revolutionary War, contends this author in a groundbreaking
study, but won their independence by employing superior strategies, tactics, and leadership. Designed for the "armchair strategist"
with dozens of detailed maps and illustrations, here is a blow-by-blow analysis of the men, commanders, and weaponry used
in the famous battles of Bunker Hill, Quebec, Trenton, Princeton, Saratoga, and Cowpens.
Recommended Reading: Kings Mountain and
Cowpens (SC): Our Victory was Complete. Description: From the rocky slopes of Kings Mountain to the plains
of Hannah's Cowpens, the Carolina backcountry hosted two of the Revolutionary War's most critical battles. On October 7, 1780,
the Battle of Kings Mountain utilized guerrilla techniques- American Overmountain Men wearing buckskin and hunting shirts
and armed with hunting rifles attacked Loyalist troops from behind trees, resulting in an overwhelming Patriot victory. Continued
In January of the next year, the Battle of Cowpens saw a different strategy but a similar outcome: with
brilliant military precision, Continental Regulars, dragoons and Patriot militia executed the war's only successful double
envelopment maneuver to defeat the British. Using firsthand accounts and careful analysis of the best classic and modern scholarship
on the subject, historian Robert Brown demonstrates how the combination of both battles facilitated the downfall of General
Charles Cornwallis and led to the Patriot victory in America.
Recommended Reading: The Road to Guilford Courthouse: The American Revolution in the Carolinas
(Paperback). Review: Most of us are familiar with the role that North and South Carolina
played in the American Civil War: if nothing else, every grade-schooler knows the significance of the 1861 bombardment of
Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. But to popular historian
John Buchanan, "that tragedy is of far less interest than the American Revolution. The Revolution was the most important event
in American history. The Civil War was unfinished business." And the Carolinas, Buchanan
convincingly argues, were the most critical theater in that conflict, with their wild Back Country seeing "a little-known
but savage civil war far exceeding anything in the North." Continued below...
The Road to Guilford Courthouse
is no less than a tour de force of pop military scholarship, an exhaustive battle-by-battle account of the Crown's grinding
march to wrest the Carolinas
from the resourceful Rebels. Beginning with Colonel William Moultrie's valiant defense atop the palmetto ramparts of Fort Sullivan against
an outnumbering force of British men-of-war to the final "long, obstinate, and bloody" exchange at Guilford Courthouse, Buchanan
meticulously recounts each skirmish, battle, and shift of strategy in the campaign. Relying on copious primary and secondary
sources, he brings the combatants to life, from the worthy but somewhat obscure, such as Nathanael Greene, whom George Washington
considered to be his successor should he fall, to soon-to-be legends such as Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox. --Paul Hughes
With Zeal and With Bayonets Only: The British Army on Campaign in North
America, 1775-1783 (Campaigns and Commanders) (Hardcover). Description: This groundbreaking
book offers a new analysis of the British Army during the "American rebellion" at both operational and tactical levels. Continued
Presenting fresh insights into the speed of British tactical movements, Spring discloses how the system
for training the army prior to 1775 was overhauled and adapted to the peculiar conditions confronting it in North America. About the
Author: Matthew Spring holds a Ph.D. in
history from the University of Leeds and
teaches history at Truro School, an independent
secondary school in Cornwall, England.
Reading: The United States of Appalachia: How Southern Mountaineers Brought Independence,
Culture, and Enlightenment to America.
Description: Few places in the United States
confound and fascinate Americans like Appalachia, yet no other area has been so markedly
mischaracterized by the mass media. Stereotypes of hillbillies and rednecks repeatedly appear in representations of the region,
but few, if any, of its many heroes, visionaries, or innovators are ever referenced. Continued below…
Make no mistake,
they are legion: from Anne Royall, America's first female muckraker, to Sequoyah, a Cherokee mountaineer who invented the
first syllabary in modern times, and international divas Nina Simone and Bessie Smith, as well as writers Cormac McCarthy,
Edward Abbey, and Nobel Laureate Pearl S. Buck, Appalachia has contributed mightily to American culture — and politics.
Not only did eastern Tennessee
boast the country's first antislavery newspaper, Appalachians also established the first
District of Washington as a bold counterpoint to British rule. With humor, intelligence, and clarity, Jeff Biggers reminds
us how Appalachians have defined and shaped the United States
we know today.
1 Battle of Cowpens – At the Cowpens, a frontier
pastureland, on January 17, 1781, Daniel Morgan led his army of tough Continentals and backwoods militia to a brilliant victory
over Banastre Tarleton’s battle-hardened force of British regulars. Located in present-day South Carolina north of Spartanburg.
2 Yorktown - On October 18, 1781, the British under General
Lord Cornwallis surrendered to American and French troops under General George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia.
3 British regular army – Regular, trained and uniformed
soldiers of the British Army, as distinguished from Loyalist (Tory) militia.
4 Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge – On February
27, 1777, patriot militia defeated a larger force of Loyalists. The battle was crucial because it ended royal authority in
North Carolina and delayed a full-scale British invasion of the South.
5 Southern Loyalists – Those of the southern colonial
population remaining loyal to the Crown. Also referred to as Tories.
6 rebellion – The British term for the American
Revolution. Those involved were termed "rebels" by the British.
7 Savannah – The British captured this Georgia
coastal town on December 29, 1778.
8 Charleston – On May 12, 1780, British forces
under Clinton forced the surrender of the Charleston militia and Continentals under the command of General Benjamin Lincoln.
The victory was a major setback for American forces in the South.
8A Camden - Fought on August 16, 1780, near Camden, South
Carolina, the Battle of Camden was a disastrous defeat for the Patriots. Gates, the American general, gained a reputation
as a "fool and coward" for his actions and fleeing the battle site. Reports of the results made Banastre Tarleton a national
hero in Britain.
9 Southern Continental Army – Those regular, trained,
and uniformed soldiers of the American army stationed in the South, as distinguished from local militia in each colony.
10 backcountry – South Carolina area west of the
coastal area, especially west of Camden. Today, referred to as the Upcountry or Upstate.
11 Waxhaws – On May 29, a1780, Tarleton’s
Legion overtook and defeated Colonel Abraham Buford and his Third Virginia Continentals as they returned through the Waxhaws
area toward North Carolina after the fall of Charleston. (Known also today as Buford’s massacre) There is some contention
over the origin of the name Waxhaws. It was the name of Native Americans of the region, derived, some historians, believe,
from native language. Others believe it is an English corruption of the original and described not only the Native Americans
of the region but also the waxy-looking haw and "hawfields", (shrubs, either Black Haw ( vibernum prunifolium )or hawthorns
( crataegus linnaeus)prominent in the region. The Waxhaw settlement, just off the Great Wagon Road, today covers parts
of both Carolinas in an area southeast of Charlotte.
12 Pacolet River – An upstate South Carolina river
with its headwaters in North Carolina flowing through present-day Spartanburg and Cherokee Counties before it empties into
the Broad. The armies of Daniel Morgan and Banastre Tarleton crossed the flood-swollen Pacolet as they journeyed toward the
13 Thicketty Creek – An upstate South Carolina
creek, a tributary of the Broad River. Most likely named for the thick plant growth along its banks. Daniel Morgan and his
army camped along Thicketty before their hurried departure for the Cowpens.
14 Broad River – A river beginning in the mountains
of North Carolina flowing southeast and joining with the Saluda River at present-day Columbia to form the Congaree River.
Morgan, his army, and British prisoners crossed the Broad after the Battle of Cowpens. British General Cornwallis crossed
the Broad in pursuit.
15 "cowpens" – A term, endemic to South Carolina,
referring to open-range stock grazing operations of the colonial period. These were usually cleared areas, 100 to 400 acres
in extent. Many, in eastern South Carolina, were known for their native cane- brakes. Piedmont pastures, though less numerous,
often contained peavine.
16 peavine – A native legume found often
in piedmont South Carolina cowpens.
17 forage – Food for animals or humans. Also, the
search for food for animals or humans.
18 militia – Part-time soldiers, subject to colonial
(state) authority, they sometimes fought with the Continental or standing army in battles such as Camden, Cowpens, and Guilford
Courthouse. Thought unreliable by some Continental officers, they proved themselves at the Battles of Kings Mountain and Cowpens.
19 Battle of Kings Mountain – The Overmountain
men and other militia defeated British loyalists at Kings Mountain in upstate South Carolina on October 7, 1780.
20 "Old Waggoner" – Affectionate name given to
General Morgan who began his military career as a wagon driver in the French and Indian War.
21 Saratoga – In fierce battles on September 19
and October 7, 1777, American forces under General Horatio Gates defeated the British under General John Burgoyne. This victory
encouraged France to enter the war to assist the Americans. Saratoga is in upstate New York.
22 "Benny" – Daniel Morgan’s derisive name
for Banastre Tarleton.
23 dragoon – A mounted infantryman, who often rode
his horse into battle and dismounted to fight. Used synonymously with cavalrymen, both of whom could fight on horseback or
24 15 – Dr. Lawrence E. Babits in his book, A
Devil of a Whipping: The Battle of Cowpens, believes this figure is wrong and has been perpetuated by writers over
25 John Eager Howard – Native Marylander and Revolutionary
War officer who distinguished himself at the Battle of Cowpens. He was subsequently elected governor of Maryland (1788-91),
and at one time owned much of the land that was to become Baltimore.
26 William Washington – Patriot Lieutenant Colonel
of a cavalry unit, who distinguished himself at Cowpens. He was second cousin, first-removed to George Washington.
27 71st Highlanders – Two battalions
of highland Scottish troops raised by England and sent to America in 1775. 71st Highlanders fought at Charleston,
Camden, and Cowpens, among other battles. At Cowpens, Tarleton initially kept his Highlanders in reserve, but, as the advance
faltered, he ordered them into action against the American right. The Highlanders bore the brunt of the last dramatic events
of the Battle.
28 double envelopment – Envelopment is an attack
on the enemies flank, rear, and sometimes the front. Double envelopment would entail attack or a surrounding on both flanks,
hence all sides.
29 bugler – William Washington’s bugler was
very likely African-American. A famous painting by Ranney dipicts him so. Apparently the bugler didn’t file a pension,
and Washington didn’t leave behind written papers of his own role or of anyone else’s role in the Revolution.
His surname was possibly Ball, Collins, or Collin, but an exact name hasn’t been verified.
30 Island Ford – A normally low-water crossing
point on the Broad River, reached by Island Ford Road. When Morgan, his army, and his prisoners crossed on January 17, the
water was high from heavy rains and flooding.
31 Gilbert Town – Presently, Rutherfordton, North
Carolina. Gilbert Town was a small settlement in 1781 a few miles north of Rutherfordton’s present site.
32 Salisbury – An early town in the North Carolina
piedmont known for its Confederate prison and National Cemetery, today, but lesser known for its Revolutionary War prison,
most likely established in the latter years of the war. There is no evidence the prisoners from the Battle of Cowpens were
33 Dan River – A river separating North Carolina
34 baggage – Military supplies such as tents, tools,
and rations carried in wagons. Burning the baggage (and wagons) allowed an army to travel faster.
35 Catawba River – River originating in the mountains
of North Carolina, flowing eastward, before turning south into South Carolina, where is known as the Wateree, and, further
east, the Santee. Morgan crossed the Catawba west of present-day Charlotte, North Carolina.
36 Battle of Guilford Courthouse – On March 15,
1781, a British army under Cornwallis attacked Nathanael Greene’s patriot forces at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina
(part of present-day Greensboro). Although Greene’s forces were forced to retire from the field; the British were badly
battered with many men killed or wounded.
37 "Tarleton’s Quarter" - Since it was said that
Tarleton gave no quarter (opportunity to surrender) at the Waxhaws, "Tarleton’s Quarter" came to mean no quarter at
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